Frequently Asked Questions

2021-11-22 20:24:25 UTC

These FAQs are designed to provide a better understanding of Creative Commons, our licenses, and our other legal and technical tools. They provide basic information, sometimes about fairly complex topics, and will often link to more detailed information.

  • Other CC FAQs:CC0 Public Domain DedicationandPublic Domain Mark.
  • “许可方”、“权利持有人”、“所有者”和“创造者”可互换用于指申请CC许可的个人或实体。
  • Information about the licenses is primarily made with reference to the 4.0 suite, but earlierlicense versionsare mentioned where they differ.
  • Have a question that isn’t answered here? Contact info@www.familygiver.com.

Creative Commons does not provide legal advice. This FAQ is for informational purposes and is not a substitute for legal advice. It may not cover important issues that affect you. You should consult with your own lawyer if you have questions.

About CC


卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享是一个全球性的非营利组织,它通过提供免费的法律工具,使人们能够共享和重用创造力和知识。我们的法律工具帮助那些希望鼓励重用其作品的人,在慷慨、标准化的条款下提供使用;创造性地利用作品的;以及那些想从这种共生关系中获益的人。我们的愿景是帮助他人实现互联网的全部潜力。CC has affiliatesall over the world他们帮助确保我们的许可证在国际上运作,并提高我们的工作意识。

Although Creative Commons is best known for its licenses, our work extends beyond just providing copyright licenses. CC offers other legal and technical tools that also facilitate sharing and discovery of creative works, such asCC0, a public domain dedication for rights holders who wish to put their work into the public domain before the expiration of copyright, and thePublic Domain Mark, a tool for marking a work that is in the worldwide public domain. Creative Commons licenses and tools were designed specifically to work with the web, which makes content that is offered under their terms easy to search for, discover, and use.

For more information about CC, ourmain websitecontains in-depth information aboutthe organization, itsstaff and board of directors, itshistory, and itssupporters. You can also readCC case studies了解CC许可和工具用于分享作品和支持创新商业模式的一些令人鼓舞的方式。You can find regularly updated information about CC by visiting theblog.

Absolutely not. CC hasresponded to claims to the contrary. CC licenses are copyright licenses, and depend on the existence of copyright to work. CC licenses are legal tools that creators and other rights holders can use to offer certain usage rights to the public, while reserving other rights. Those who want to make their work available to the public for limited kinds of uses while preserving their copyright may want to consider using CC licenses. Others who want to reserve all of their rights under copyright law should not use CC licenses.

也就是说,知识共享认识卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析到修改版权法的必要性,许多知识共享社区的成员都是版权改革运动的积极参与者。For more information, see ourstatement in support of copyright reform.


Copyrightgrants to creators a bundle of exclusive rights over their creative works, which generally include, at a minimum, the right to reproduce, distribute, display, and make adaptations. The phrase “All Rights Reserved” is often used by owners to indicate that they reserve all of the rights granted to them under the law. When copyright expires, the work enters thepublic domain, and the rights holder can no longer stop others from engaging in those activities under copyright, with the exception of moral rights reserved to creators in some jurisdictions. Creative Commons licenses offer creators a spectrum of choices between retaining all rights and relinquishing all rights (public domain), an approach we call “Some Rights Reserved.”

No. Creative Commons is not a law firm and does not provide legal advice or legal services. CC is similar to a self-help service that offers free, form-based legal documents for others to use. These FAQ answers many of the most common questions. There is also specialized information available on the following pages:

While CC does provide this informational guidance about its licenses and other tools, this information may not apply to your particular situation, and should never be taken as legal advice.

If you’re looking for legal advice about using CC licenses and other tools, we recommend contacting theCreative Commons affiliate in your jurisdiction. CC affiliates are highly connected to the communities of copyright lawyers in their countries. We also offer alist of lawyers and organizationswho have identified themselves as willing to provide information to others about CC licensing issues. However, please note that CC does not provide referral services, and does not endorse or recommend any person on that list.

Does Creative Commons collect or track material licensed under a CC license?

不,CC不收集内容或追踪授权材料。然而,CC构建了一些技术工具,帮助公众搜索和使用在我们的许可和其他法律工具下授权的作品,许多其他人也构建了这样的工具。CC Searchis one tool developed by CC to help the public discover works offered under Creative Commons licenses on the internet via CC-aware search engines and repositories.

What do the Creative Commons buttons do?

The CC buttons are a shorthand way to convey the basic permissions associated with material offered under CC licenses. Creators and owners who apply CC licenses to their material candownload and apply those buttonsto communicate to users the permissions granted in advance. When the material is offered online, the buttons should usually link out to the human-readable license deeds (which, in turn, link to the license itself).


You maydownload high resolution versionsof the Creative Commons logos and use them in connection with your work or your website, provided you comply with our世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 . Among other things, if you use the logos on a website or on your work, you may not alter the logos in any respect—such as by changing the font, the proportions, or the colors. CC’s buttons, name, and corporate logo (the “CC” in a circle) are trademarks of Creative Commons. You cannot use them in ways not permitted by our policies unless you first receive express, written permission. This means, for example, that you cannot (without our permission) print your own buttons and t-shirts using CC logos, although you can purchase them in CC’sstore.


Please support CC by making a donation through oursupport page. Donations can be handled through PayPal or by credit card. You can also support CC by visiting ourstore.

CC always welcomes your feedback, which you can provide by emailing. You can also participate in CC’semail discussion listsand share feedback and ideas in one of those forums.

If you are a software developer, sysadmin, or have other technical expertise, pleasejoin our developer communityand help build the tools that build the commons.

最后,支持CC最好的方式之一就是支持我们的事业。Follow ourblogto find out about current issues where you can help get involved and spread the word, and advocate for free and open licensing in your own communities.

Why does Creative Commons run an annual fundraising campaign? What is the money used for and where does it go?

卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享是一个全球性的非营利性组织,它通过免费的法律工具实现创意和知识的共享和重用,其分支机构遍布世界各地,帮助确保我们的许可在国际上有效,并提高人们对我们工作的认识。Our tools are free, and our reach is wide.

In order to…

  • continue developing our licenses and public domain tools to make sure they are legally and technically up-to-date around the world,
  • help creators implement these tools on websites through best practices and individual assistance,
  • enable CC licensing on major content-sharing platforms,
  • enhance CC-licensed resource search and discovery,
  • advocate for CC licensing and open policies ineducation,science, andculture, and
  • myriad other activities we’re forgetting to mention, such as all the everyday boring but essential operations that go into running an organization

…we need $ to make it all happen! For more information, please take a look at ourAnnual Report.

卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享一直依赖个人和组织的慷慨捐助来资助其持续运作。获得公众的支持是至关重要的,因为正是CC材料的创造者和用户使我们的工具在这个数字时代具有相关性。They depend on the tools and services CC provides through their reuse and remix of the rich, open resources available onWikipedia,Flickr,SoundCloud,Vimeo,Europeana,MIT OpenCourseWare, theLibrary of Science,Al Jazeera, andYouTube—just to name a few. Many of these people donate $10, $25, or $50 to CC, to help keep it up and running so we can continue to provide our tools and services for free, as a nonprofit organization. The more people whodonateto CC, the more independent it will remain.

General License Information

What are Creative Commons licenses?

Creative Commons licensesprovide an easy way to manage the copyright terms that attach automatically to all creative material undercopyright. Our licenses allow that material to be shared and reused under terms that are flexible and legally sound. Creative Commons offers a core suite of six copyright licenses. Because there is no single “Creative Commons license,” it is important to identifywhich of the six licensesyou are applying to your material, which of the six licenses has been applied to material that you intend to use, and in both cases the specific version.

我们所有的许可都要求用户在使用和共享材料时向创建者提供归属(BY)。一些许可方选择BY许可,它要求将归属于创建者作为重用材料的唯一条件。其他五个许可将BY与三个附加许可元素中的一个或多个结合在一起:NonCommercial (NC),禁止对材料的商业使用;NoDerivatives (ND),禁止分享改编的材料;以及ShareAlike (SA),后者要求在相同的许可下发布素材的改编版本。

CC licenses may be applied to any type of work, includingeducational resources,music,photographs,databases,government and public sector information, andmany other types of material. The only categories of works for which CC does not recommend its licenses arecomputer software和硬件。You should also not apply Creative Commons licenses to works that areno longer protected by copyright or are otherwise in the public domain. Instead, for those works in the worldwide public domain, we recommend that you mark them with thePublic Domain Mark.

How do CC licenses operate?

CC licenses are operative only when applied to material in which acopyright存在,甚至只有在版权不允许使用的情况下才存在。Note that the latest version of CC licenses also applies to rights similar to copyright, such asneighboring rightsandsui generis database rights.了解有关许可证范围的更多信息。This means that CC license terms and conditions arenottriggered byuses permitted under any applicable exceptions and limitations to copyright,许可条款和条件也不适用于在公共领域的许可作品的元素。这也意味着CC许可在没有潜在版权的作品的使用上没有合同上的限制。This feature (and others)distinguish CC licenses from some other open licenseslike theODbLandODC-BY, both of which are intended toimpose contractual conditions and restrictions关于数据库在没有基本版权或自成体系的数据库权利的司法管辖区的重用。

All CC licenses are non-exclusive:creators and owners can enter into additional, different licensing arrangementsfor the same material at any time (often referred to as “dual-licensing” or “multi-licensing”). However,CC licenses are not revocableonce granted unless there has been a breach, and even then the license is terminated only for the breaching licensee.

Please note that CC0 is not a license; it is a public domain dedication. When CC0 is applied to a work, copyright no longer applies to the work in most jurisdictions around the world. Therefore, references to dual licensing arrangements like the one above are inapplicable to CC0.

There are alsovideos and comicsthat offer visual descriptions of how CC licenses work.

Which is the latest version of the licenses offered by Creative Commons?

2013年11月,知识共享发布了4.卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析0版本许可套件。这些许可证是CC提供的最新许可证,建议在所有以前的版本中使用。You can see how the licenses have been improved over time on thelicense versions page. 4.0 has been drafted to be internationally valid, and will have official translations becoming available after publication.

No. By design, CC licenses do not reduce, limit, or restrict any rights under exceptions and limitations to copyright, such asfair useorfair dealing. If your use of CC-licensed material would otherwise be allowed because of an applicable exception or limitation, you do not need to rely on the CC license or comply with its terms and conditions.This is a fundamental principle of CC licensing.

Who gives permission to use material offered under Creative Commons licenses?

Our licenses and legal tools are intended for use by anyone who holds copyright in the material. This is often, but not always, the creator.

Creative Commons offers licenses and tools to the public free of charge and does not require that creators or other rights holders register with CC in order to apply a CC license to a work. This means thatCC does not have special knowledge of who uses the licensesand for what purposes, nor does CC have a way to contact creators beyond means generally available to the public. CC has no authority to grant permission on behalf of those persons, nor does CC manage those rights on behalf of others.

If you would like to obtain additional permissions to use the work beyond those granted by the license that has been applied, or if you’re not sure if your intended use is permitted by the license, you shouldcontact the rights holder.

Are Creative Commons licenses enforceable in a court of law?

Creative Commons licenses are drafted to be enforceable around the world, and have beenenforced in courtin various jurisdictions. To CC’s knowledge, the licenses have never been held unenforceable or invalid.

CC licenses contain a “severability” clause. This allows a court to eliminate any provision determined to be unenforceable, and enforce the remaining provisions of the license.

What happens if someone applies a Creative Commons license to my work without my knowledge or authorization?

CCalerts prospective licensors在向作品申请CC许可之前,他们需要拥有所有必要的权利。如果情况并非如此,并且有人在未经您授权的情况下用CC许可标记了您的作品,您应该联系那个人,并告诉他们从您的作品中删除该许可。你也可以联系律师。Creative Commons is not a law firm and cannot represent you or give you legal advice, but there arelawyers who have identified themselves as interested in representing people in CC-related matters.

What are the international (“unported”) Creative Commons licenses, and why does CC offer “ported” licenses?

One of CC’s goals is ensuring that all of its legal tools work globally, so that anyone anywhere in the world can share their work on globally standard terms. To this end, CC offers a core suite of six international copyright licenses (formerly called the “unported”) that are drafted based largely on variousinternational treaties governing copyright, taking into account as many jurisdiction-specific legal issues as possible. The latest version (4.0) has been drafted with particular attention to the needs of international enforceability.

For version 3.0 and earlier, Creative Commons has also offered ported versions of its six core licenses for many jurisdictions (which usually correspond to countries, but not always). These ported licenses are based on the international license suite but have been modified to reflect local nuances in the expression of legal terms and conditions, drafting protocols, and language. The ported licenses and the international licenses are all intended to be legally effective everywhere. CC expects that few, if any, ports will be necessary for 4.0.

CC recommends that you take advantage of the improvements in the 4.0 suite explained on thelicense versions pageunless there areparticular considerations you are aware of这将需要一个移植许可证。

我可以在维基百科文章中包括一个使用CC BY授权的作品吗,即使他们使用的是CC BY- sa授权?

是的。根据CC BY授权的作品可以并入根据CC BY- sa授权的作品。例如,您可以将一张抄送BY的照片合并到维基百科文章中,只要您保持所有版权声明的完整性,提供适当的归属,并在其他方面遵守抄送BY的条款。Learn moreabout the licenses.

Can governments and intergovernmental organizations (“IGOs”) use CC licenses?

Yes, anyone may use CC licenses for material they own, including governments and IGOs, and these institutionsfrequently use CC licenses on their copyrightable material. The reasons for doing so vary, and often include a desire to maximize the impact and utility of works for educational and informational purposes, and to enhance transparency.

Creative Commons licenses havedesirable featuresthat make them the preferred choice over custom licenses. CC licenses are standard and interoperable, which means material published by different creators using the same type of CC license can be translated, modified, compiled, and remixed without legal barriers depending on theparticular license applied. Creative Commons licenses are also machine-readable, allowing CC-licensed works to be easily discovered via search engines such as Google. These features maximize distribution, reuse, and impact of works published by governments and IGOs.

虽然我们鼓励任何人使用4.0版本,它在国际上是有效的,个人和组织都可以使用,但也有一个IGO移植的3.0版本,政府组织也可以使用。Read more about howgovernmentsandIGOsuse and leverage CC licenses and legal tools, considerations for using our licenses, and如何在政府间组织的背景下运作。


This issue depends largely on the laws in place where the child lives. In the United States, children can be copyright holders and are entitled to license their works in the same manner as adults. However, they may have the right to disaffirm certain types of legal agreements, including licenses. In many parts of the United States, for example, children have the ability to disaffirm some types of agreements under certain circumstances once they reach the age where they are considered adults within the relevant jurisdiction. We are unaware of any attempt by a licensor to exercise the disaffirmation right with respect to a CC license applied to a work.

What are the official translations of the CC licenses and CC0?

Official language translations will be available for the 4.0 licenses and CC0. When you license your own work, you may use or link to the text of any available official translation. When you reuse CC-licensed material, you may comply with the license conditions by referring to any available official translation of the license. These translations are linguistic translations of the English version which adhere as closely as possible to the original text. These translations have been done by our affiliates in accordance with theLegal Code Translation Policy在CC法律团队的监督和详细审查下。请注意,这些是英语原文的等价物;these translations arenotjurisdiction ported versions. You may find a list of all available translationshere.

For versions 3.0 and earlier, official translations are not available. Some unofficial translations were made for informational purposes only. (Jurisdiction ported versions of version 3.0 and earlier were generally published in the official language(s) of the appropriate jurisdiction. However, the ported licenses arenot equivalentto the international licenses, and do not serve as substitutable references for purposes of complying with the terms and conditions of the licenses.)

What is a BY-SA Compatible License?

A BY-SA Compatible License is a license officially designated by Creative Commons pursuant to theShareAlike compatibility process. Once deemed a BY-SA Compatible License, you may use the license to publish your contributions to an adaptation of a BY-SA work. To see the list of BY-SA Compatible Licenses, clickhere. Learn more about ShareAlike compatibilityhere.

For Licensors

Choosing a license

What things should I think about before I apply a Creative Commons license?

Applying a Creative Commons license to your material is a serious decision. When you apply a CC license, you give permission to anyone to use your material for the full duration of applicable copyright and similar rights.

CC has identifiedsome things that you should considerbefore you apply a CC license, some of which relate to your ability to apply a CC license at all. Here are some highlights:


如果您不确定哪种许可最适合您的需求,那么有很多资源可以帮助版权所有者选择正确的CC许可。CC Australia has developed aflow chartthat may be useful in helping you settle on the right license for your work. You can alsoread case studiesof others who are using CC licenses. The CC community can also respond to questions, and may have already addressed issues you raise. The CC communityemail discussion listsand discussion archives may be useful resources.

Finally, you may also want toconsult with a lawyerto obtain advice on the best license for your needs.

Why should I use the latest version of the Creative Commons licenses?

创作共用许可证的最新版本是4.0版本。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析You should always use the latest version of the Creative Commons licenses in order to take advantage of the many improvements described on thelicense versions page. In particular, 4.0 is meant to be better suited to international use, and use in many different contexts, includingsharing data.


所有CC许可都旨在在全球范围内使用。Unless you have a specific reason to use aported license,我们建议您考虑使用一种国际许可证。4.0将支持国际许可证的官方翻译,为那些希望使用另一种语言的许可证。

As of version 4.0, CC is discouraging ported versions, and has placed a hold on new porting projects following its publication until sometime in 2014. At that point, CC will reevaluate the necessity of porting in the future.

Should I choose an international license or a ported license?

We recommend that you use a version 4.0 international license. This is the most up-to-date version of our licenses, drafted after broad consultation with our global network of affiliates, and it has been written to be internationally valid. There are currently noportsof 4.0, and it is planned that few, if any, will be created.

All of the ported licenses are at version 3.0 or earlier, which means licensors using those licenses do not have the benefit of theimprovements made in the 4.0 license suite. But even before considering the improvements in 4.0, there are several reasons why theinternational licensesmay be preferable for rights holders, even if the licenses have been ported to their jurisdiction. As an organization, CC itself licenses all of its own content under an international license because, among other reasons, the international licenses are essentially jurisdiction-neutral while remaining effective globally. The neutral nature of the international licenses appeals to many people and organizations, particularly for use in connection with global projects that transcend political borders. Finally, it is important to know that some of the ported licenses contain a choice of law provision, which may be undesirable for your needs.


You canuse our jurisdiction database就这些问题和其他问题比较国际许可证和端口,例如移植的许可证是否包含法律选择或法院选择条款。

Why should I use the license chooser? What if I don’t?

Licensors are not required to use theCC license chooseror provide any information about themselves or their material when applying a CC license to their material. However, using the license chooser enables licensors to take advantage of the “machine readable” layer of CC licenses. Ourmachine-readablecode enhances the discoverability of your work because that code allows software, search engines, and other tools to recognize when something is licensed under a CC license. The code also facilitates attribution: when users click on the CC button placed on your site, they will be linked directly to HTML code that they can cut and paste to provide attribution.


For online material: Select the license that is appropriate for your materialfrom the CC license chooserand then follow theinstructions以包含HTML代码。The code will automatically generate alicense buttonand a statement that your material is licensed under a CC license. If you are only licensing part of a work (for example, if you have created a video under a CC license but are using a song under a different license), be sure to clearlymark哪些部分在CC许可下,哪些部分不在。The HTML code will also include metadata, which allows the material to be discovered viaCreative Commons-enabled search engines.

For offline material: Identify which license you wish to apply to your work and either (a)mark your work并附上这样的声明:“本作品是根据知识共享许可协议授权的。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析要查看许可证副本,请访问[insert url] ";or (b) insert the applicablelicense buttonswith the same statement and URL link.

For third-party platforms: Manymedia platformslikeFlickr,YouTube, andSoundCloud有内置的创作共用功能,允许用卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析户通过他们的帐户设置用CC许可标记他们的材料。The benefit of using this functionality is that it allows other people to find your content whensearching on those platforms for CC-licensed material. If the platform where you’re uploading your content does not support CC licensing, you can still identify your content as CC-licensed in the text description of your content.


CC offers resources on thebest practices for marking your materialand onhow to mark material in different media (.pdf).


No. CC offers its licenses, code, and tools to the public free of charge, without obligation. You do not need to register with Creative Commons to apply a CC license to your material; it is legally valid as soon as you apply it to any material you have the legal right to license.

CC does not require or provide any means for creators or other rights holders to register use of a CC license,nor does CC maintain a database of worksdistributed under Creative Commons licenses. CC also does not require registration of the work with a national copyright agency.


Although CC licenses get attached to tangible works (such as photos and novels), the license terms and conditions apply to the licensor’scopyrightin the licensed material. The public is granted “permission to exercise” those rights inany medium or format. It is the expression that is protected by copyright and covered by the licenses, not any particular medium or format in which the expression is manifested. This means, for example, that a CC licenseapplied to a digitized copyof a novel grants the public permission under copyright to use a print version of the same novel on the same terms and conditions (though you may have to purchase the print version from a bookstore).

Can I apply a Creative Commons license to software?

我们不建议对软件使用知识共享许可。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析相反,我们强烈建议您使用现有的一个非常好的软件许可。We recommend consideringlicenses listed as freeby theFree Software Foundationandlisted as “open source”by theOpen Source Initiative.

Unlike software-specific licenses, CC licenses do not contain specific terms about the distribution of source code, which is often important to ensuring the free reuse and modifiability of software. Many software licenses also address patent rights, which are important to software but may not be applicable to other copyrightable works. Additionally, our licenses are currently not compatible with the major software licenses, so it would be difficult to integrate CC-licensed work with other free software. Existing software licenses were designed specifically for use with software and offer a similar set of rights to the Creative Commons licenses.

Version 4.0 of CC’s Attribution-ShareAlike (BY-SA) license isone-way compatiblewith theGNU General Public License version 3.0(GPLv3). This compatibility mechanism is designed for situations in which content is integrated into software code in a way that makes it difficult or impossible to distinguish the two. There are special considerations required before using this compatibility mechanism. Read more about ithere.

Also, the CC0 Public Domain Dedicationis与gpl兼容并可接受的软件。For details,see the relevant CC0 FAQ entry.



是的。CC licensescan be used on databases. In the 4.0 license suite, applicablesui generis database rightsare licensed under the same license conditions as copyright. Manygovernments and others use CC licensesfor data and databases.

For more detailed information about how CC licenses apply to data and databases, visit our detailedData FAQ.

Could I use a CC license to share my logo or trademark?

卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享不建议在徽标或商标上使用CC许可。虽然徽标或商标除了受到商标法的保护外,还可以受到版权法的保护,但商标的特殊用途使得CC许可在大多数情况下不适合共享它们。一般来说,标志和商标是用来识别产品或服务的来源,或表明它符合特定的标准或质量。由于版权问题,允许任何人重复使用或修改您的标志或商标可能导致您无法有选择地限制使用您的标志或商标来实现这些目的。对您的商标和徽标申请CC许可甚至可能导致您完全丧失商标权。Seebelowfor more about how to license material that includes a trademark or logo.

There are other ways to share your logos and trademarks widely while preserving your trademark rights. Establishing a trademark policy that grants permissions in advance for limited uses is one common alternative.Mozilla,Wikimedia, and世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 have each published policies that accomplish the dual objectives of encouraging reuse and preserving trademark rights.


CC licenses should not be applied to works in the worldwidepublic domain. All CC licenses are clear that theydo not have the effectof placing restrictions on material that would otherwise be unrestricted, and you cannot remove a work from the public domain by applying a CC license to it. If you want to dedicate your own work to the public domain before the expiration of applicable copyright or similar rights, use CC’s legally robustpublic domain dedication. If a work is already in the worldwide public domain, you should mark it with CC’sPublic Domain Mark.

Note that, in some cases, a work may be in the public domain under the copyright laws of some jurisdictions but not others. For example, U.S. government works are in the public domain under the copyright law of the United States, but may be protected by copyright laws in other jurisdictions. A CC license applied to such a work would be effective (and the license restrictions enforceable) in jurisdictions where copyright protection exists, but would not be operative if U.S. copyright law is determined to be the applicable law.

Creators may also apply Creative Commons licenses to material they create that are adapted from public domain works, or to remixed material, databases, or collections that include work in the public domain. However, in each of these instances, the license does not affect parts of the work that are unrestricted by copyright or similar rights. We strongly encourage you tomark the public domain material, so that others know they are also free to use this material without legal restriction.


That depends. You can apply a CC license to your photograph if your photograph constitutes a work of original authorship, a question that varies by jurisdiction. As a general matter, your photograph must involve some creative choices, such as background setting, lighting, angle, or other mark of creativity. In the United States, an exact photographic copy of a public domain work is not subject to copyright because there is no originality (even if there is effort or “sweat” exerted in its creation).

In practice, if your photograph is sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection, people will likely have to comply with the license conditions if they reproduce your entire photograph in verbatim form, absent some applicable exception or limitation such as fair use. However,they would not have to comply with the license conditions if they reproduce only those parts of the work in the public domain. This is because your copyright in the adaptation only extends to the material you contributed, not to the underlying work.

Yes, but it is important to prominently mark any third party material you incorporate into your work so reusers do not think the CC license applies to that material. The CC license only applies to the rights you have in the work. For example, if your CC-licensed slide deck includes a Flickr image you are using pursuant to fair use, make sure to identify that image as not being subject to the CC license. For more information about incorporating work owned by others, see our page aboutmarking third party content. Read more considerations for licensorshere.

CC licenses are copyright licenses, but the latest version of CC licenses also cover certain other rights similar to copyright, includingperformance, broadcast, and sound recording rights, as well assui generis database rights. You may apply a 4.0 license to material subject to any of those rights, whether or not the material is also subject to copyright. Note that the scope of prior versions of CC licenses was more limited. You should refer to ourlicense versions pagefor details.

How do Creative Commons licenses affect my moral rights, if at all?

As a general matter, all CC licenses preservemoral rights在某种程度上,它们存在(它们不存在于任何地方),但允许以许可所设想的方式使用作品,否则可能会违反道德权利。如果您对您的材料申请4.0许可,您同意在允许公众行使许可权利的有限范围内放弃或不主张您拥有的任何道德权利。这样做的目的是尽量减少道德权利对被许可人使用作品能力的影响,并确保许可按照预期在国际上发挥作用。我们所有许可中包含的归属要求都是为了满足归属的道德权利,但必须遵守适用的司法管辖区是否承认道德权利。

Earlier versionsof the license are also intended to minimize the effect of moral rights on otherwise-permitted uses, but the language in the licenses differs. Additionally, jurisdiction ports of earlier versions of CC licenses often contain versions of the moral rights language designed to account for moral rights legislation in a particular jurisdiction. If you are applying a ported license to your work, you may wish to review the moral rights language in the particular license.

You can alsocompare how different jurisdictions have implemented this provision, orbrowse the license versions page比较不同版本的CC许可对该问题的处理。



The following is an example notice:

The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (”CC-BY-SA”). . . . Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer tohttps://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Legal:Trademark_guidelines.

How are publicity, privacy, and personality rights affected when I apply a CC license?

When you apply the latest version (4.0) of a CC license to your material, you also agree to waive or not assert anypublicity, privacy, or personality rights在他人行使许可权利所必需的有限范围内,您在您所许可的材料中所持有的。例如,如果您已授权您自己的照片,您可能不会维护您的隐私权,使该照片从进一步的分发中删除。(在3.0和更早的许可下,这是隐含的,但不是明确的。)如果您不希望以这种方式授权这些权利,您就不应该对涉及此问题的材料申请CC许可。

如果有任何第三方可能有公开、隐私或人格权利的申请,这些权利不受您的CC许可申请的影响,重用者必须寻求相关使用的许可。If you are aware of any such third party rights in the material you are licensing, we recommendmarking the materialto give notice to reusers.

Plagiarism involves the copying of someone else’s creation or ideas and passing them off as one’s own without attribution to the original author. Plagiarism is generally a matter of ethics and is dealt with primarily through social norms, ethics policies, academic standards, and codes of conduct. Plagiarism will usually give rise to professional or academic sanctions, and will not necessarily be the subject of legal proceedings.


Creative Commons licenses are not designed to address issues that fall outside the scope of copyright law, although, when the licenses were first developed, Creative Commons expected that theattributionrequirement would contribute to reducing instances of plagiarism. Regardless, activities such as plagiarism are not directly governed by the application of CC licenses. That said, the attribution requirement and the obligation to indicate modifications made to a work can alleviate authors’ concerns over plagiarism and serve to assist in the enforcement of attribution and citation in the scholarly and academic contexts.

For more information, read our blog postWhy Sharing Academic Publications Under “No Derivatives” Licenses is Misguided.

Business models


You may license your copyright or distribute your work under more than one set of terms. For example, you may publish a photograph on your website, but only distribute high-resolution copies to people who have paid for access. This is a practice CC supports. However, if the low-resolution and high-resolution copies are thesame work under applicable copyright law, CC许可不限于特定副本,收到高分辨率副本的人可以在适用于低分辨率副本的CC许可条款下使用它。

Note that, although CCstrongly discourages the practice, CC不能阻止许可方试图通过单独的使用协议来施加限制,否则许可将允许使用。In that case, licensees may becontractually restrictedfrom using the high-resolution copy, for example, even if the licensor has placed a CC license on the low-resolution copy.

Can I use a Creative Commons license if I am a member of a collecting society?

Creators and other rights holders may wish to check with theircollecting society在向他们的材料申请CC许可之前。许多是收集协会成员的权利持有人可以放弃对许可证允许的使用收取版税的权利,但只能在其协会允许的范围内。

Collecting societies in several countries including Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Taiwan, and the Netherlands take an assignment of rights from creators in present and future works and manage them, so that the societies effectively become the owner of these rights. (In France it is called a “mandate” of rights but has similar practical effect.) Creators in these jurisdictions who belong to collecting societies may not be able to license their material under CC licenses because the collecting societies own the necessary rights, not the creators. CC is与几个收集协会合作并运行试点项目,允许创作者在某些情况下使用CC许可。

If you are already a member of a collecting society and want to use CC licenses, you are welcome to encourage your collecting society to give you the option of Creative Commons licensing.

Can I still make money from a work I make available under a Creative Commons license?

是的。我们的目标之一是鼓励创作者和版权所有者尝试新方法来推广和营销他们的作品。There are several possible ways of doing this.

CC’sNonCommercial (NC)licenses allow rights holders to maximize distribution while maintaining control of the commercialization of their works. If you want to reserve the right to commercialize your work, you may do this by choosing a license with the NC condition. If someone else wants to use your work commercially and you have applied an NC license to your work, they must first get your permission. As the rights holder, you may still sell your own work commercially.

You may also use funding models that do not depend on using an NC license. For example, many artists and creators use crowdfunding to fund their work before releasing it under a less restrictive license. Others use a “freemium” model where the basic content is free, but extras such as a physical printed version or special access to a members-only website are for paying customers only.

For more information and ideas,The Power of Openpresents case studies of artists, businesspeople, and organizations who use CC.

Alterations and additions to the license

Can I insist on the exact placement of the attribution credit?

No. CC licenses allow for flexibility in the way credit is provided depending on the medium, means, and context in which a licensee is redistributing licensed material. For example, providing attribution to the creator when using licensed material in a blog post may be different than doing so in a video remix. This flexibility facilitates compliance by licensees and reduces uncertainty about different types of reuse—minimizing the risk that overly onerous and inflexible attribution requirements are simply disregarded.

Can I change the license terms or conditions?

Yes—but if you change the terms and conditions of any Creative Commons license, youmust no longer call, label, or describe the license as a “Creative Commons” or “CC” license, nor can you use the世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 in connection with the modified license or your materials. Keep in mind that altering terms and conditions is distinct fromwaiving existing conditions or granting additional permissionsthan those in the licenses. Licensors may always do so, and many choose to do so using theCC+ protocol随时在CC许可契约上发出放弃或额外许可的信号。

CC does not assert copyright in the text of its licenses, so you are permitted to modify the text as long as you do not use the CC marks to describe it. However, we do not recommend this. We also advise againstmodifying our licenses通过间接的方式,比如你的服务条款。修改后的许可很可能与应用于其他材料的相同CC许可(未修改)不兼容。这将防止被许可方将您定制的许可下的内容与相同或兼容的CC许可下的其他内容进行使用、组合或重新混合。

Modifying licenses creates friction that confuses users and undermines the key benefits of public, standardized licenses. Central to our licenses is the grant of a standard set of permissions in advance, without requiring users to ask for permission or seek clarification before using the work. This encourages sharing and facilitates reuse, since everyone knows what to expect and the burden of negotiating permissions on a case by case basis is eliminated.

Can I waive license terms or conditions?

是的。您可以选择放弃一些许可条款或条件。在CC许可下许可但被授予额外许可或放弃条件的材料可以与同一许可下的其他材料兼容许可。OurCC+ protocolprovides a mechanism for facilitating that grant or waiver.

Can I enter into separate or supplemental agreements with users of my work?


Separate agreements:You may offer the licensed material under other licenses in addition to the CC license (a practice commonly referred to as “dual licensing”). For example, you may wish to license a video game soundtrack under both a CC license and the GPL, so that it may be used under either set of terms. A reuser may then choose which set of terms to comply with. Or, for example, you may offer your material to the public under a NonCommercial license, but offer commercial permissions to fee-paying customers.

Supplemental agreements:Problems arise when licensors design those terms or arrangements to serve not as separate, alternative licensing arrangements but as supplemental termshaving the effect of changing the standard terms within the CC license. While you may offer separate terms and conditions to other parties, you should not do so in such a way that would neutralize terms of the CC license.

Except in the limited situation wheremore permissions are being granted or license conditions are waived, if the additional arrangement modifies or conflicts with the CC license terms, then the resulting licensing arrangement is no longer a CC licensing arrangement. To avoid confusing those who may mistakenly believe the work is licensed under standard CC terms, we must insist that in these instances licensors not use our世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 in connection with their custom licensing arrangement.



What happens if I offer my material under a Creative Commons license and someone misuses them?

Please see our guide onWhat to do if Your CC-Licensed Work is Misused.


Please see our guide onWhat to do if Your CC-Licensed Work is Misused.

What do I do if someone tries to place effective technological measures (such as DRM) on my CC-licensed material?

The use ofany effective technical protection measures (such as digital rights management or “DRM”)被许可人禁止阻止他人行使被许可的权利。

Not all kinds of encryption oraccess limitations被许可证禁止。例如,通过电子邮件发送内容并使用收件人的公钥对其进行加密并不会限制收件人对作品的使用。同样,将接收方限制在特定的用户组内(例如,输入站点时需要用户名和密码)并不会限制接收方对内容的进一步使用。In these examples, these things do not prevent the recipient from exercising all of the rights granted by the license, including the right to redistribute it further.

If someone is applying effective technological measures to your CC-licensed material that do restrict exercise of the licensed rights (such as applying DRM that restricts copying), this is a violation of the license terms unless you have chosen to grant this permission separately.

When I release my work under a CC license in one format (e.g., .pdf), can I restrict licensees from changing it to or using it in other formats?

No. CC licenses grant permission to use the licensed material in any media or format regardless of the format in which it has been made available. This is true even if you have applied a NoDerivatives license to your work. Once a CC license is applied to a work in one format or medium, a licensee may use the same work in any other format or medium without violating the licensor’s copyright.


CC licenses are not revocable. Once something has been published under a CC license, licensees may continue using it according to the license terms for the duration of applicable copyright and similar rights. As a licensor, you may stop distributing under the CC license at any time, but anyone who has access to a copy of the material may continue to redistribute it under the CC license terms. While you cannot revoke the license, CC licenses do provide amechanism对于许可人要求其他人使用他们的材料删除归因信息。You shouldthink carefully before choosing a Creative Commons license.

For Licensees

Before using CC-licensed material

What should I think about before using material offered under a Creative Commons license?

CC offerssix core licenses,每个属性授予一组不同的权限。Before you use CC-licensed material,you should review the terms of the particular license确保您预期的使用是允许的。如果您希望以许可不允许的方式使用作品,您应该首先联系版权所有者(通常是创作者)以获得许可,或寻找以允许您预期使用的方式获得许可的替代作品。Note that if you use material in a way that is not permitted by the applicable license and your use is not otherwise permitted by an applicable copyright exception or limitation, the license isautomatically terminated你可能要为侵犯版权负责,即使你以后有资格恢复你的权利。

Before using material offered under a Creative Commons license, you should know thatCC licenses only grant permissions needed under copyright and similar rights,并且您可能需要额外的权利来按预期使用它。您还应该了解,除非另有明确说明,许可方不会对其许可的材料提供保证或保证。所有材料均“按现状”授权,除非另有明确规定,否则免责声明适用。如果你想要求关于使用材料的权利的保证或保证,你应该在使用它之前和许可方谈谈。

Does a Creative Commons license give me all the rights I need to use the work?

It depends. CC licenses do not license rights other than copyright andsimilar rights(which includesui generis database rightsin version 4.0). For example, they do not license trademark or patent rights, or thepublicity, personality, and privacy rightsof third parties. However, licensors agree to waive or not assert anymoral rights、肖像权、人格权或隐私权,在允许其行使许可权利的必要范围内。任何超出许可范围的权利都可能需要许可(即许可)才能按照您的意愿使用作品。


所有CC许可均包含担保免责声明,这意味着许可方不担保作品的任何内容,包括她是否拥有版权,是否已获得在其作品中包括第三方内容的许可,或通过使用一个人的形象在作品中使用模型发布等其他权利。Youmay wish to obtain legal advicebefore using CC-licensed material if you are not sure whether you have all the rights you need.

What if there are sui generis database rights that apply to my use of a CC-licensed database?

In the somewhat limited circumstances where sui generis database rights apply to your use, special conditions apply and there are more specific considerations you should be aware of. Under 4.0, sui generis database rights are licensed alongside copyright, but the treatment in earlier versions of the license varies. A fuller explanation of these variations and related considerations is available in theData FAQ.

Where can I find material offered under a CC license?

If you are looking for material offered under a Creative Commons license,CC Search是一个很好的起点。There is also adirectory使用CC许可的组织和个人。Some media sites, such asFlickr, have search filters for material licensed using CC’s licenses.


Are Creative Commons works really free to use?


(If you wish to make uses that are not permitted by the license—for example, making acommercial use许可方可对这些额外权利收取费用。)

What should I know about differences between the international licenses and the ported licenses?

As a licensee, you should always read and understand the relevant license’s legal code before using CC-licensed material, particularly if you are using material that is licensed using aported license这是你不熟悉的。我们的移植过程涉及到调整国际许可以适应不同司法管辖区的法律框架,在这个过程中可能会做一些轻微的调整,您应该在使用材料之前意识到这一点。You can find more information about the ported licenses in theJurisdiction Database.

There are currently no ported versions of 4.0, and we expect there will be few, if any, in the future. All official translations of the 4.0 international licenses are equivalent: you may substitute one for another depending on your preferred language.


General license compliance

What happens if I want to use the material in a way that is not permitted by the license?

联系版权所有者请求许可。Otherwise,unless an exception or limitation to copyright applies,您对材料的使用可能违反知识共享许可协议。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析If you violate the terms of the license, your rights to use the material will beautomatically terminated,你可能要为侵犯版权负责。

Do I always have to comply with the license terms? If not, what are the exceptions?

You need to comply with the license terms if what you are doing would otherwise require permission from the rights holder. If your use would not require permission from the rights holder because it falls under an exception or limitation, such as fair use, or because the material has come into the public domain, the license does not apply, and you do not need to comply with its terms and conditions. Additionally, if you are using an excerpt small enough to be uncopyrightable, the license does not apply to your use, and you do not need to comply with its terms.

However, if you are using excerpts of CC-licensed material which individually are minimal and do not require license compliance, but together make up a significant copyrightable chunk, you must comply with the license terms. For example, if you quote many individual lines from a poem across several sections of a blog post, and your use is not a fair use, you must comply with the license even though no individual line would have been a substantial enough portion of the work to require this.


How do I properly attribute material offered under a Creative Commons license?

All CC licenses require users to attribute the creator of licensed material, unless the creator haswaived that requirement, not supplied a name, orasked that her name be removed. Additionally, you must retain a copyright notice, a link to the license (or to the deed), a license notice, a notice about the disclaimer of warranties, and a URI if reasonable. For versions prior to 4.0, you must also provide the title of the work. (Though it is not a requirement in 4.0, it is still recommended if one is supplied.)

You must also indicate if you havemodified the work—for example, if you have taken an excerpt, or cropped a photo. (For versions prior to 4.0, this is only required if you have created an adaptation by contributing your own creative material, but it is recommended even when not required.) It is not necessary to note trivial alterations, such as correcting a typo or changing a font size. Finally, you must retain an indication of previous modifications to the work.

CC licenses have a flexible attribution requirement, so there is not necessarily one correct way to provide attribution. The proper method for giving credit will depend on the medium and means you are using, and may be implemented in any reasonable manner. Additionally, you may satisfy the attribution requirement by providing a link to a place where the attribution information may be found.

While the attribution requirements in the license are the minimum requirement, we always recommend that youfollow the best practicesfor the kind of use you are making. For example, if you are using scientific data marked with CC0, you are not required to give attribution at all, but we recommend that you give the same credit you would give to any other source—not because the license requires it, but because that is the standard for letting others know the source of the data.

The CC website offers somebest practicesto help you attribute properly, and theCC Australiateam has developed ahelpful guide to attributing CC-licensed material (.pdf)在不同的格式。注意,归属和标记要求在不同的许可证版本之间略有不同。Seehere for a chart comparing the specific requirements.


是的。您需要注意,在未经许可的情况下,不要暗示任何赞助、背书或与许可方或署名方的联系。错误地暗示创作者、出版商或任何人认可你或你对作品的使用可能是非法的。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享协议在其许可中明确规定了不暗示认可的义务。In addition, if the licensor of a workrequests that you remove the identifying credit你必须在实际的范围内这样做。

Additionally, when you are using a work that is an adaptation of one or more pre-existing works, you may need togive credit to the creator(s) of the pre-existing work(s), in addition to giving credit to the creator of the adaptation.

Do I always have to attribute the creator of the licensed material?

当您通过受版权或类似权利限制的任何方式向公众提供材料时,您必须注明创造者。如果您个人使用该材料,但没有将其或其任何修改提供给他人,您不必归因于许可方。同样,如果您只是在您的公司或组织内分发材料或其改编,您不必遵守属性要求。Learnmoreabout when compliance with the license is not required.

Using licensed material


CC’s NonCommercial (NC) licenses prohibit uses that are “primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or monetary compensation.” This is intended to capture the intention of the NC-using community without placing detailed restrictions that are either too broad or too narrow. Please note that CC’s definition does not turn on the type of user: if you are a nonprofit or charitable organization, your use of an NC-licensed work could still run afoul of the NC restriction, and if you are a for-profit entity, your use of an NC-licensed work does not necessarily mean you have violated the term. Whether a use is commercial will depend on the specifics of the situation and the intentions of the user.


CC has abrief guide对NC许可的解释进行了详细的介绍,并介绍了NC许可的含义和注意事项。Additionally, in 2008,Creative Commons published resultsfrom a survey on meanings of commercial and noncommercial use generally. Note that the results of the study are not intended to serve as CC’s official interpretation of what is and is not commercial use under our licenses, and the results should not be relied upon as such.



This means, for example, that even if a creator distributes a work in digital format, you have permission to print and share a hard copy of the same work.



Under U.S. copyright law, for example, mechanical reproduction of a work into a different formatis unlikely to create a separate, new work. Consequently, digitally enhancing or changing the format of a workabsent some originality, such as expressive choices made in the enhancement or encoding, will not likely create a separate work for copyright purposes. The creative bar is low, but it is not non-existent. Accordingly, in some jurisdictions releasing a photograph under a CC license will give the public permission to reuse the photograph in a different resolution.


noderived许可证(BY-ND和BY-NC-ND)禁止重用者创建适配。What constitutes anadaptation, otherwise known as a derivative work, varies slightly based on the law of the relevant jurisdiction.