Frequently Asked Questions

2021-11-22 20:24:25 UTC

的se FAQs are designed to provide a better understanding of Creative Commons, our licenses, and our other legal and technical tools. They provide basic information, sometimes about fairly complex topics, and will often link to more detailed information.

  • Other CC FAQs:CC0 Public Domain DedicationandPublic Domain Mark
  • “Licensor”, “rights holder”, “owner”, and “creator” may be used interchangeably to refer to the person or entity applying a CC license.
  • Information about the licenses is primarily made with reference to the 4.0 suite, but earlierlicense versionsare mentioned where they differ.
  • Have a question that isn’t answered here? Contact info@www.familygiver.com.

Creative Commons does not provide legal advice. This FAQ is for informational purposes and is not a substitute for legal advice. It may not cover important issues that affect you. You should consult with your own lawyer if you have questions.

About CC

What is Creative Commons and what do you do?

卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享是一个全球性的非营利组织,它通过提供免费的法律工具,使人们能够共享和重用创造力和知识。我们的法律工具帮助那些希望鼓励重用其作品的人,在慷慨、标准化的条款下提供使用;创造性地利用作品的;以及那些想从这种共生关系中获益的人。我们的愿景是帮助他人实现互联网的全部潜力。CC has affiliatesall over the worldwho help ensure our licenses work internationally and who raise awareness of our work.

Although Creative Commons is best known for its licenses, our work extends beyond just providing copyright licenses. CC offers other legal and technical tools that also facilitate sharing and discovery of creative works, such asCC0, a public domain dedication for rights holders who wish to put their work into the public domain before the expiration of copyright, and thePublic Domain Mark, a tool for marking a work that is in the worldwide public domain. Creative Commons licenses and tools were designed specifically to work with the web, which makes content that is offered under their terms easy to search for, discover, and use.

For more information about CC, ourmain websitecontains in-depth information aboutthe organization, itsstaff and board of directors, itshistory, and itssupporters.You can also readCC case studiesto learn about some of the inspiring ways CC licenses and tools have been used to share works and support innovative business models. You can find regularly updated information about CC by visiting theblog

绝对不是。CC hasresponded to claims to the contrary.CC许可是版权许可,并依赖于版权的存在来工作。CC许可是法律工具,创作者和其他权利持有人可以使用它向公众提供某些使用权,同时保留其他权利。那些希望将其作品以有限的用途向公众开放,同时保留其版权的人可能需要考虑使用CC许可。其他想要保留所有版权法律下的权利的人不应该使用CC许可。

也就是说,知识共享认识卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析到修改版权法的必要性,许多知识共享社区的成员都是版权改革运动的积极参与者。For more information, see ourstatement in support of copyright reform


Copyrightgrants to creators a bundle of exclusive rights over their creative works, which generally include, at a minimum, the right to reproduce, distribute, display, and make adaptations. The phrase “All Rights Reserved” is often used by owners to indicate that they reserve all of the rights granted to them under the law. When copyright expires, the work enters thepublic domain, and the rights holder can no longer stop others from engaging in those activities under copyright, with the exception of moral rights reserved to creators in some jurisdictions. Creative Commons licenses offer creators a spectrum of choices between retaining all rights and relinquishing all rights (public domain), an approach we call “Some Rights Reserved.”

不。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享不是一家律师事务所,不提供法律咨询或法律服务。抄送类似于自助服务,提供免费的、基于形式的法律文件供他人使用。这些常见问题解答了许多最常见的问题。的re is also specialized information available on the following pages:

While CC does provide this informational guidance about its licenses and other tools, this information may not apply to your particular situation, and should never be taken as legal advice.

If you’re looking for legal advice about using CC licenses and other tools, we recommend contacting theCreative Commons affiliate in your jurisdiction.CC附属机构与各自国家的版权律师社区有着高度的联系。We also offer alist of lawyers and organizationswho have identified themselves as willing to provide information to others about CC licensing issues. However, please note that CC does not provide referral services, and does not endorse or recommend any person on that list.

Does Creative Commons collect or track material licensed under a CC license?

No, CC does not collect content or track licensed material. However, CC builds technical tools that help the public search for and use works licensed under our licenses and other legal tools, and many others have built such tools as well.CC Searchis one tool developed by CC to help the public discover works offered under Creative Commons licenses on the internet via CC-aware search engines and repositories.

What do the Creative Commons buttons do?

的CC buttons are a shorthand way to convey the basic permissions associated with material offered under CC licenses. Creators and owners who apply CC licenses to their material candownload and apply those buttonsto communicate to users the permissions granted in advance. When the material is offered online, the buttons should usually link out to the human-readable license deeds (which, in turn, link to the license itself).


You maydownload high resolution versionsof the Creative Commons logos and use them in connection with your work or your website, provided you comply with our世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 .此外,如果您在网站或您的作品中使用徽标,您不能在任何方面改变徽标——例如通过改变字体、比例或颜色。CC的按钮、名称和公司标志(圈内的“CC”)是知识共享的商标。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析除非您首先得到明确的书面许可,否则您不能以我们的政策不允许的方式使用它们。This means, for example, that you cannot (without our permission) print your own buttons and t-shirts using CC logos, although you can purchase them in CC’sstore

I love Creative Commons. How can I help?

Please support CC by making a donation through oursupport page.捐款可以通过PayPal或信用卡进行处理。You can also support CC by visiting ourstore

CC always welcomes your feedback, which you can provide by emailing.You can also participate in CC’semail discussion listsand share feedback and ideas in one of those forums.

If you are a software developer, sysadmin, or have other technical expertise, pleasejoin our developer community并且帮助建立建立公共资源的工具。

Finally, one of the best ways to support CC is by supporting our causes yourself. Follow ourblogto find out about current issues where you can help get involved and spread the word, and advocate for free and open licensing in your own communities.

Why does Creative Commons run an annual fundraising campaign? What is the money used for and where does it go?


In order to…

  • continue developing our licenses and public domain tools to make sure they are legally and technically up-to-date around the world,
  • help creators implement these tools on websites through best practices and individual assistance,
  • enable CC licensing on major content-sharing platforms,
  • enhance CC-licensed resource search and discovery,
  • advocate for CC licensing and open policies ineducation,science, andculture, and
  • myriad other activities we’re forgetting to mention, such as all the everyday boring but essential operations that go into running an organization

…we need $ to make it all happen! For more information, please take a look at ourAnnual Report

Creative Commons has always relied on the generosity of both individuals and organizations to fund its ongoing operations. It is essential we have the public’s support because it is the creators and users of CC material who make our tools relevant in this digital age. They depend on the tools and services CC provides through their reuse and remix of the rich, open resources available onWikipedia,Flickr,SoundCloud,Vimeo,Europeana,MIT OpenCourseWare, theLibrary of Science,Al Jazeera, andYouTube—just to name a few. Many of these people donate $10, $25, or $50 to CC, to help keep it up and running so we can continue to provide our tools and services for free, as a nonprofit organization. The more people whodonateto CC, the more independent it will remain.

General License Information

What are Creative Commons licenses?

Creative Commons licensesprovide an easy way to manage the copyright terms that attach automatically to all creative material undercopyright.我们的许可允许这些材料在灵活和合法的条款下共享和重用。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享提供了6个版权许可的核心套件。Because there is no single “Creative Commons license,” it is important to identifywhich of the six licensesyou are applying to your material, which of the six licenses has been applied to material that you intend to use, and in both cases the specific version.

All of our licenses require that users provide attribution (BY) to the creator when the material is used and shared. Some licensors choose the BY license, which requires attribution to the creator as the only condition to reuse of the material. The other five licenses combine BY with one or more of three additional license elements: NonCommercial (NC), which prohibits commercial use of the material; NoDerivatives (ND), which prohibits the sharing of adaptations of the material; and ShareAlike (SA), which requires adaptations of the material be released under the same license.

CC licenses may be applied to any type of work, includingeducational resources,music,photographs,databases,government and public sector information, andmany other types of material.的only categories of works for which CC does not recommend its licenses arecomputer softwareand hardware. You should also not apply Creative Commons licenses to works that areno longer protected by copyright or are otherwise in the public domain.Instead, for those works in the worldwide public domain, we recommend that you mark them with thePublic Domain Mark

How do CC licenses operate?

CC licenses are operative only when applied to material in which acopyrightexists, and even then only when a particular use would otherwise not be permitted by copyright. Note that the latest version of CC licenses also applies to rights similar to copyright, such asneighboring rightsandsui generis database rights了解有关许可证范围的更多信息。This means that CC license terms and conditions arenottriggered byuses permitted under any applicable exceptions and limitations to copyright,许可条款和条件也不适用于在公共领域的许可作品的元素。这也意味着CC许可在没有潜在版权的作品的使用上没有合同上的限制。This feature (and others)distinguish CC licenses from some other open licenseslike theODbLandODC-BY, both of which are intended toimpose contractual conditions and restrictionson the reuse of databases in jurisdictions where there is no underlying copyright or sui generis database right.

All CC licenses are non-exclusive:creators and owners can enter into additional, different licensing arrangementsfor the same material at any time (often referred to as “dual-licensing” or “multi-licensing”). However,CC licenses are not revocable一旦授予,除非有违反,即使是这样,许可证也只对违反许可的人终止。

Please note that CC0 is not a license; it is a public domain dedication. When CC0 is applied to a work, copyright no longer applies to the work in most jurisdictions around the world. Therefore, references to dual licensing arrangements like the one above are inapplicable to CC0.

的re are alsovideos and comicsthat offer visual descriptions of how CC licenses work.

Which is the latest version of the licenses offered by Creative Commons?

In November 2013, Creative Commons published the version 4.0 license suite. These licenses are the most up-to-date licenses offered by CC, and are recommended over all prior versions. You can see how the licenses have been improved over time on thelicense versions page.4.0已经起草,将在国际上有效,并将在出版后提供官方翻译。

不。By design, CC licenses do not reduce, limit, or restrict any rights under exceptions and limitations to copyright, such asfair useorfair dealing.如果由于适用的例外或限制而允许您使用CC许可的材料,您不需要依赖于CC许可或遵守其条款和条件。这是CC许可的基本原则。

Who gives permission to use material offered under Creative Commons licenses?

Our licenses and legal tools are intended for use by anyone who holds copyright in the material. This is often, but not always, the creator.

Creative Commons offers licenses and tools to the public free of charge and does not require that creators or other rights holders register with CC in order to apply a CC license to a work. This means thatCC does not have special knowledge of who uses the licensesand for what purposes, nor does CC have a way to contact creators beyond means generally available to the public. CC has no authority to grant permission on behalf of those persons, nor does CC manage those rights on behalf of others.

If you would like to obtain additional permissions to use the work beyond those granted by the license that has been applied, or if you’re not sure if your intended use is permitted by the license, you shouldcontact the rights holder


Creative Commons licenses are drafted to be enforceable around the world, and have beenenforced in court在不同的司法管辖区。据CC所知,该许可从未被认为是不可执行或无效的。

CC licenses contain a “severability” clause. This allows a court to eliminate any provision determined to be unenforceable, and enforce the remaining provisions of the license.

What happens if someone applies a Creative Commons license to my work without my knowledge or authorization?

CCalerts prospective licensors在向作品申请CC许可之前,他们需要拥有所有必要的权利。如果情况并非如此,并且有人在未经您授权的情况下用CC许可标记了您的作品,您应该联系那个人,并告诉他们从您的作品中删除该许可。你也可以联系律师。Creative Commons is not a law firm and cannot represent you or give you legal advice, but there arelawyers who have identified themselves as interested in representing people in CC-related matters

What are the international (“unported”) Creative Commons licenses, and why does CC offer “ported” licenses?

CC的目标之一是确保其所有法律工具在全球范围内发挥作用,这样世界上任何地方的任何人都可以以全球标准的条款分享他们的工作。To this end, CC offers a core suite of six international copyright licenses (formerly called the “unported”) that are drafted based largely on variousinternational treaties governing copyright, taking into account as many jurisdiction-specific legal issues as possible. The latest version (4.0) has been drafted with particular attention to the needs of international enforceability.

For version 3.0 and earlier, Creative Commons has also offered ported versions of its six core licenses for many jurisdictions (which usually correspond to countries, but not always). These ported licenses are based on the international license suite but have been modified to reflect local nuances in the expression of legal terms and conditions, drafting protocols, and language. The ported licenses and the international licenses are all intended to be legally effective everywhere. CC expects that few, if any, ports will be necessary for 4.0.

CC recommends that you take advantage of the improvements in the 4.0 suite explained on thelicense versions pageunless there areparticular considerations you are aware of这将需要一个移植许可证。

我可以在维基百科文章中包括一个使用CC BY授权的作品吗,即使他们使用的是CC BY- sa授权?

是的。根据CC BY授权的作品可以并入根据CC BY- sa授权的作品。For example, you may incorporate a CC BY photograph into a Wikipedia article so long as you keep all copyright notices intact, provide proper attribution, and otherwise comply with the terms of CC BY.Learn moreabout the licenses.

Can governments and intergovernmental organizations (“IGOs”) use CC licenses?

Yes, anyone may use CC licenses for material they own, including governments and IGOs, and these institutionsfrequently use CC licenses on their copyrightable material.的reasons for doing so vary, and often include a desire to maximize the impact and utility of works for educational and informational purposes, and to enhance transparency.

Creative Commons licenses havedesirable featuresthat make them the preferred choice over custom licenses. CC licenses are standard and interoperable, which means material published by different creators using the same type of CC license can be translated, modified, compiled, and remixed without legal barriers depending on theparticular license applied.卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析创作共用许可也是机器可读的,允许通过搜索引擎(如谷歌)轻松发现cc许可的作品。这些特性最大化了政府和政府间组织发布的作品的分发、重用和影响。

虽然我们鼓励任何人使用4.0版本,它在国际上是有效的,个人和组织都可以使用,但也有一个IGO移植的3.0版本,政府组织也可以使用。Read more about howgovernmentsandIGOsuse and leverage CC licenses and legal tools, considerations for using our licenses, andhow they operate in the IGO context.

Can children apply Creative Commons licenses to work they create?


What are the official translations of the CC licenses and CC0?

官方语言翻译将提供给4.0许可证和CC0。当您授权您自己的作品时,您可以使用或链接到任何可用的官方翻译的文本。当您重用cc许可的材料时,您可以通过参考许可的任何官方翻译来遵守许可条件。这些翻译是对英文版本的语言翻译,尽可能地贴近原文。的se translations have been done by our affiliates in accordance with theLegal Code Translation Policy在CC法律团队的监督和详细审查下。请注意,这些是英语原文的等价物;these translations arenotjurisdiction ported versions.You may find a list of all available translationshere

For versions 3.0 and earlier, official translations are not available. Some unofficial translations were made for informational purposes only. (Jurisdiction ported versions of version 3.0 and earlier were generally published in the official language(s) of the appropriate jurisdiction. However, the ported licenses arenot equivalentto the international licenses, and do not serve as substitutable references for purposes of complying with the terms and conditions of the licenses.)


A BY-SA Compatible License is a license officially designated by Creative Commons pursuant to theShareAlike compatibility process.一旦被视为BY-SA兼容许可,您可以使用该许可发布您对BY-SA作品改编的贡献。To see the list of BY-SA Compatible Licenses, clickhere.Learn more about ShareAlike compatibilityhere

For Licensors

Choosing a license

What things should I think about before I apply a Creative Commons license?

Applying a Creative Commons license to your material is a serious decision. When you apply a CC license, you give permission to anyone to use your material for the full duration of applicable copyright and similar rights.

CC has identifiedsome things that you should considerbefore you apply a CC license, some of which relate to your ability to apply a CC license at all. Here are some highlights:

How should I decide which license to choose?

If you are unsure which license best suits your needs, there are plenty of resources to help rights holders choose the right CC license. CC Australia has developed aflow chartthat may be useful in helping you settle on the right license for your work. You can alsoread case studies其他使用CC许可的用户。CC社区也可以回答问题,并且可能已经解决了您提出的问题。的CC communityemail discussion listsand discussion archives may be useful resources.

Finally, you may also want toconsult with a lawyerto obtain advice on the best license for your needs.

Why should I use the latest version of the Creative Commons licenses?

创作共用许可证的最新版本是4.0版本。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析You should always use the latest version of the Creative Commons licenses in order to take advantage of the many improvements described on thelicense versions page.In particular, 4.0 is meant to be better suited to international use, and use in many different contexts, includingsharing data


所有CC许可都旨在在全球范围内使用。Unless you have a specific reason to use aported license,我们建议您考虑使用一种国际许可证。4.0将支持国际许可证的官方翻译,为那些希望使用另一种语言的许可证。

As of version 4.0, CC is discouraging ported versions, and has placed a hold on new porting projects following its publication until sometime in 2014. At that point, CC will reevaluate the necessity of porting in the future.

Should I choose an international license or a ported license?

We recommend that you use a version 4.0 international license. This is the most up-to-date version of our licenses, drafted after broad consultation with our global network of affiliates, and it has been written to be internationally valid. There are currently noports在4.0的基础上,按照计划,即使有,也很少会创建。

All of the ported licenses are at version 3.0 or earlier, which means licensors using those licenses do not have the benefit of theimprovements made in the 4.0 license suite.But even before considering the improvements in 4.0, there are several reasons why theinternational licensesmay be preferable for rights holders, even if the licenses have been ported to their jurisdiction. As an organization, CC itself licenses all of its own content under an international license because, among other reasons, the international licenses are essentially jurisdiction-neutral while remaining effective globally. The neutral nature of the international licenses appeals to many people and organizations, particularly for use in connection with global projects that transcend political borders. Finally, it is important to know that some of the ported licenses contain a choice of law provision, which may be undesirable for your needs.

However, some rights holders still choose a license ported to their local jurisdiction because they believe their needs are not sufficiently met by the international licenses. If the licenses have been ported to your jurisdiction and you feel that the ported licenses better account for some aspect of local legislation, then you may wish to consider a ported license.

You canuse our jurisdiction database就这些问题和其他问题比较国际许可证和端口,例如移植的许可证是否包含法律选择或法院选择条款。


Licensors are not required to use theCC license chooser或在向其材料申请CC许可时提供有关其自身或其材料的任何信息。但是,使用许可选择器允许许可方利用CC许可的“机器可读”层。Ourmachine-readablecode enhances the discoverability of your work because that code allows software, search engines, and other tools to recognize when something is licensed under a CC license. The code also facilitates attribution: when users click on the CC button placed on your site, they will be linked directly to HTML code that they can cut and paste to provide attribution.

How do I apply a Creative Commons license to my material?

For online material: Select the license that is appropriate for your materialfrom the CC license chooserand then follow theinstructionsto include the HTML code. The code will automatically generate alicense buttonand a statement that your material is licensed under a CC license. If you are only licensing part of a work (for example, if you have created a video under a CC license but are using a song under a different license), be sure to clearlymarkwhich parts are under the CC license and which parts are not. The HTML code will also include metadata, which allows the material to be discovered viaCreative Commons-enabled search engines

For offline material: Identify which license you wish to apply to your work and either (a)mark your workwith a statement such as, “This work is licensed under the Creative Commons [insert description] License. To view a copy of the license, visit [insert url]”; or (b) insert the applicablelicense buttonswith the same statement and URL link.

For third-party platforms: Manymedia platformslikeFlickr,YouTube, andSoundCloudhave built-in Creative Commons capabilities, letting users mark their material with a CC license through their account settings. The benefit of using this functionality is that it allows other people to find your content whensearching on those platforms for CC-licensed material.如果您上传内容的平台不支持CC许可,您仍然可以在内容的文本描述中标识您的内容为CC许可。


CC offers resources on thebest practices for marking your materialand onhow to mark material in different media (.pdf)

Do I need to register with Creative Commons before I obtain a license?


CC does not require or provide any means for creators or other rights holders to register use of a CC license,nor does CC maintain a database of worksdistributed under Creative Commons licenses. CC also does not require registration of the work with a national copyright agency.


虽然CC许可附加于有形的作品(如照片和小说),但许可条款和条件适用于许可方的作品copyrightin the licensed material. The public is granted “permission to exercise” those rights inany medium or format.它是受版权保护和许可保护的表达,而不是表达所使用的任何特定媒介或格式。This means, for example, that a CC licenseapplied to a digitized copyof a novel grants the public permission under copyright to use a print version of the same novel on the same terms and conditions (though you may have to purchase the print version from a bookstore).

Can I apply a Creative Commons license to software?

We recommend against using Creative Commons licenses for software. Instead, we strongly encourage you to use one of the very good software licenses which are already available. We recommend consideringlicenses listed as freeby theFree Software Foundationandlisted as “open source”by theOpen Source Initiative

Unlike software-specific licenses, CC licenses do not contain specific terms about the distribution of source code, which is often important to ensuring the free reuse and modifiability of software. Many software licenses also address patent rights, which are important to software but may not be applicable to other copyrightable works. Additionally, our licenses are currently not compatible with the major software licenses, so it would be difficult to integrate CC-licensed work with other free software. Existing software licenses were designed specifically for use with software and offer a similar set of rights to the Creative Commons licenses.

Version 4.0 of CC’s Attribution-ShareAlike (BY-SA) license isone-way compatiblewith theGNU General Public License version 3.0(GPLv3). This compatibility mechanism is designed for situations in which content is integrated into software code in a way that makes it difficult or impossible to distinguish the two. There are special considerations required before using this compatibility mechanism. Read more about ithere

Also, the CC0 Public Domain DedicationisGPL-compatible and acceptable for software. For details,see the relevant CC0 FAQ entry

While we recommend against using a CC license on software itself, CC licenses may be used for software documentation, as well as for separate artistic elements such as game art or music.

Can I apply a Creative Commons license to databases?

是的。CC licensescan be used on databases.In the 4.0 license suite, applicablesui generis database rightsare licensed under the same license conditions as copyright. Manygovernments and others use CC licensesfor data and databases.

For more detailed information about how CC licenses apply to data and databases, visit our detailedData FAQ


Creative Commons does not recommend using a CC license on a logo or trademark. While a logo or trademark can be covered by copyright laws in addition to trademark laws, the special purposes of trademarks make CC licenses an unsuitable mechanism for sharing them in most cases. Generally, logos and trademarks are used to identify the origin of a product or service, or to indicate that it meets a specific standard or quality. Allowing anyone to reuse or modify your logo or trademark as a matter of copyright could result in your inability to limit use of your logo or trademark selectively to accomplish those purposes. Applying a CC license to your trademarks and logos could even result in a loss of your trademark rights altogether. Seebelow有关如何授权包含商标或徽标的材料的更多信息。

的re are other ways to share your logos and trademarks widely while preserving your trademark rights. Establishing a trademark policy that grants permissions in advance for limited uses is one common alternative.Mozilla,Wikimedia, and世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 have each published policies that accomplish the dual objectives of encouraging reuse and preserving trademark rights.


CC licenses should not be applied to works in the worldwidepublic domain.All CC licenses are clear that theydo not have the effect对原本不受限制的材料施加限制,并且您不能通过对其应用CC许可将其从公共领域删除。If you want to dedicate your own work to the public domain before the expiration of applicable copyright or similar rights, use CC’s legally robustpublic domain dedication.If a work is already in the worldwide public domain, you should mark it with CC’sPublic Domain Mark


Creators may also apply Creative Commons licenses to material they create that are adapted from public domain works, or to remixed material, databases, or collections that include work in the public domain. However, in each of these instances, the license does not affect parts of the work that are unrestricted by copyright or similar rights. We strongly encourage you tomark the public domain material, so that others know they are also free to use this material without legal restriction.

If I take a photograph of another work that is in the public domain, can I apply a CC license to my photo?

That depends. You can apply a CC license to your photograph if your photograph constitutes a work of original authorship, a question that varies by jurisdiction. As a general matter, your photograph must involve some creative choices, such as background setting, lighting, angle, or other mark of creativity. In the United States, an exact photographic copy of a public domain work is not subject to copyright because there is no originality (even if there is effort or “sweat” exerted in its creation).

In practice, if your photograph is sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection, people will likely have to comply with the license conditions if they reproduce your entire photograph in verbatim form, absent some applicable exception or limitation such as fair use. However,they would not have to comply with the license conditions if they reproduce only those parts of the work in the public domain.这是因为你在改编中的版权只延伸到你贡献的材料,而不是潜在的作品。

Yes, but it is important to prominently mark any third party material you incorporate into your work so reusers do not think the CC license applies to that material. The CC license only applies to the rights you have in the work. For example, if your CC-licensed slide deck includes a Flickr image you are using pursuant to fair use, make sure to identify that image as not being subject to the CC license. For more information about incorporating work owned by others, see our page about标记第三方内容.Read more considerations for licensorshere

CC licenses are copyright licenses, but the latest version of CC licenses also cover certain other rights similar to copyright, includingperformance, broadcast, and sound recording rights, as well assui generis database rights.您可以对受这些权利约束的材料申请4.0许可,无论材料是否也受版权约束。注意,以前版本的CC许可的范围更有限。You should refer to ourlicense versions page获取详细信息。

How do Creative Commons licenses affect my moral rights, if at all?

As a general matter, all CC licenses preservemoral rightsto the extent they exist (they do not exist everywhere), but allow uses of the work in ways contemplated by the license that might otherwise violate moral rights. If you apply a 4.0 license to your material, you agree to waive or not assert any moral rights you have, to the limited extent necessary to allow the public to exercise the licensed rights. This is designed to minimize the effect of moral rights on licensees’ ability to use the work, and ensure that the license works internationally as intended. The attribution requirement contained in all of our licenses is intended to satisfy the moral right of attribution, but it must be adhered to whether or not the applicable jurisdiction recognizes moral rights.

Earlier versionsof the license are also intended to minimize the effect of moral rights on otherwise-permitted uses, but the language in the licenses differs. Additionally, jurisdiction ports of earlier versions of CC licenses often contain versions of the moral rights language designed to account for moral rights legislation in a particular jurisdiction. If you are applying a ported license to your work, you may wish to review the moral rights language in the particular license.

You can alsocompare how different jurisdictions have implemented this provision, orbrowse the license versions page比较不同版本的CC许可对该问题的处理。


Yes, you may offer material under a Creative Commons license that includes a trademark indicating the source of the work without affecting rights in the trademark, because trademark rights are not licensed by the CC licenses. However, applying the CC license may create an implied license to use the trademark in connection with the licensed material, although not in ways that require permission under trademark law. To avoid any uncertainty, Creative Commons recommends that licensors who wish to mark material with trademarks or other branding materials give notice to licensors expressly disclaiming application of the license to those elements. This can be done in the copyright notice, but could also be noted on the website where the work is published.

的following is an example notice:

的text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license (”CC-BY-SA”). . . . Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. For guidelines on the permitted uses of the Fedora trademarks, refer tohttps://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Legal:Trademark_guidelines

How are publicity, privacy, and personality rights affected when I apply a CC license?

When you apply the latest version (4.0) of a CC license to your material, you also agree to waive or not assert anypublicity, privacy, or personality rights在他人行使许可权利所必需的有限范围内,您在您所许可的材料中所持有的。例如,如果您已授权您自己的照片,您可能不会维护您的隐私权,使该照片从进一步的分发中删除。(在3.0和更早的许可下,这是隐含的,但不是明确的。)如果您不希望以这种方式授权这些权利,您就不应该对涉及此问题的材料申请CC许可。

如果有任何第三方可能有公开、隐私或人格权利的申请,这些权利不受您的CC许可申请的影响,重用者必须寻求相关使用的许可。If you are aware of any such third party rights in the material you are licensing, we recommendmarking the materialto give notice to reusers.

Plagiarism involves the copying of someone else’s creation or ideas and passing them off as one’s own without attribution to the original author. Plagiarism is generally a matter of ethics and is dealt with primarily through social norms, ethics policies, academic standards, and codes of conduct. Plagiarism will usually give rise to professional or academic sanctions, and will not necessarily be the subject of legal proceedings.

Copyright infringement is a matter of law and will give rise to legal sanctions. An action may be considered plagiarism but not copyright infringement and vice versa, or both at the same time. For example, copying part of a text and not crediting the author could be considered plagiarism in an academic context, but not copyright infringement if the reproduction is allowed under an exception or if the text is in the public domain (subject to the application of moral rights). Conversely, copying part of a text without authorization and without benefiting from an exception but with correctly crediting the author could be copyright infringement but not plagiarism.

Creative Commons licenses are not designed to address issues that fall outside the scope of copyright law, although, when the licenses were first developed, Creative Commons expected that theattributionrequirement would contribute to reducing instances of plagiarism. Regardless, activities such as plagiarism are not directly governed by the application of CC licenses. That said, the attribution requirement and the obligation to indicate modifications made to a work can alleviate authors’ concerns over plagiarism and serve to assist in the enforcement of attribution and citation in the scholarly and academic contexts.

For more information, read our blog postWhy Sharing Academic Publications Under “No Derivatives” Licenses is Misguided

Business models

Can I apply a CC license to low-resolution copies of a licensed work and reserve more rights in high-resolution copies?

您可以授权您的版权或发布您的作品在一个以上的条款。例如,您可以在您的网站上发布一张照片,但只向付费访问的人分发高分辨率的副本。这是CC支持的一种实践。However, if the low-resolution and high-resolution copies are thesame work under applicable copyright law, CC许可不限于特定副本,收到高分辨率副本的人可以在适用于低分辨率副本的CC许可条款下使用它。

Note that, although CCstrongly discourages the practice, CC不能阻止许可方试图通过单独的使用协议来施加限制,否则许可将允许使用。In that case, licensees may becontractually restrictedfrom using the high-resolution copy, for example, even if the licensor has placed a CC license on the low-resolution copy.

Can I use a Creative Commons license if I am a member of a collecting society?

Creators and other rights holders may wish to check with theircollecting society在向他们的材料申请CC许可之前。许多是收集协会成员的权利持有人可以放弃对许可证允许的使用收取版税的权利,但只能在其协会允许的范围内。

Collecting societies in several countries including Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Taiwan, and the Netherlands take an assignment of rights from creators in present and future works and manage them, so that the societies effectively become the owner of these rights. (In France it is called a “mandate” of rights but has similar practical effect.) Creators in these jurisdictions who belong to collecting societies may not be able to license their material under CC licenses because the collecting societies own the necessary rights, not the creators. CC isworking with several collecting societiesand running pilot programs that allow creators to use CC licenses in some circumstances.

If you are already a member of a collecting society and want to use CC licenses, you are welcome to encourage your collecting society to give you the option of Creative Commons licensing.

Can I still make money from a work I make available under a Creative Commons license?


CC’sNonCommercial (NC)licenses allow rights holders to maximize distribution while maintaining control of the commercialization of their works. If you want to reserve the right to commercialize your work, you may do this by choosing a license with the NC condition. If someone else wants to use your work commercially and you have applied an NC license to your work, they must first get your permission. As the rights holder, you may still sell your own work commercially.


For more information and ideas,的Power of Openpresents case studies of artists, businesspeople, and organizations who use CC.

Alterations and additions to the license

Can I insist on the exact placement of the attribution credit?

不。CC许可允许根据被许可方重新分发许可材料的媒介、手段和上下文灵活地提供信用。例如,在博客文章中使用授权材料时提供给创作者的属性可能与在视频混音中这样做不同。This flexibility facilitates compliance by licensees and reduces uncertainty about different types of reuse—minimizing the risk that overly onerous and inflexible attribution requirements are simply disregarded.

Can I change the license terms or conditions?

Yes—but if you change the terms and conditions of any Creative Commons license, youmust no longer call, label, or describe the license as a “Creative Commons” or “CC” license, nor can you use the世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 in connection with the modified license or your materials. Keep in mind that altering terms and conditions is distinct fromwaiving existing conditions or granting additional permissionsthan those in the licenses. Licensors may always do so, and many choose to do so using theCC+ protocolto readily signal the waiver or additional permission on the CC license deed.

CC并没有在其许可的文本中声明版权,所以只要您不使用CC标记来描述它,您就可以修改文本。但是,我们不建议这样做。We also advise againstmodifying our licenses通过间接的方式,比如你的服务条款。修改后的许可很可能与应用于其他材料的相同CC许可(未修改)不兼容。这将防止被许可方将您定制的许可下的内容与相同或兼容的CC许可下的其他内容进行使用、组合或重新混合。

Modifying licenses creates friction that confuses users and undermines the key benefits of public, standardized licenses. Central to our licenses is the grant of a standard set of permissions in advance, without requiring users to ask for permission or seek clarification before using the work. This encourages sharing and facilitates reuse, since everyone knows what to expect and the burden of negotiating permissions on a case by case basis is eliminated.

Can I waive license terms or conditions?

是的。您可以选择放弃一些许可条款或条件。在CC许可下许可但被授予额外许可或放弃条件的材料可以与同一许可下的其他材料兼容许可。OurCC+ protocol提供一种机制,促进批准或放弃。



Separate agreements:You may offer the licensed material under other licenses in addition to the CC license (a practice commonly referred to as “dual licensing”). For example, you may wish to license a video game soundtrack under both a CC license and the GPL, so that it may be used under either set of terms. A reuser may then choose which set of terms to comply with. Or, for example, you may offer your material to the public under a NonCommercial license, but offer commercial permissions to fee-paying customers.

Supplemental agreements:Problems arise when licensors design those terms or arrangements to serve not as separate, alternative licensing arrangements but as supplemental termshaving the effect of changing the standard terms within the CC license.虽然您可以向其他方提供单独的条款和条件,但您不应以使CC许可条款失效的方式这样做。

Except in the limited situation wheremore permissions are being granted or license conditions are waived, if the additional arrangement modifies or conflicts with the CC license terms, then the resulting licensing arrangement is no longer a CC licensing arrangement. To avoid confusing those who may mistakenly believe the work is licensed under standard CC terms, we must insist that in these instances licensors not use our世界杯2022赛程时间表最新 与他们的海关发牌安排有关。


After licensing


Please see our guide onWhat to do if Your CC-Licensed Work is Misused


Please see our guide onWhat to do if Your CC-Licensed Work is Misused

What do I do if someone tries to place effective technological measures (such as DRM) on my CC-licensed material?

的use ofany effective technical protection measures (such as digital rights management or “DRM”)by licensees to prevent others from exercising the licensed rights is prohibited.

Not all kinds of encryption oraccess limitations被许可证禁止。例如,通过电子邮件发送内容并使用收件人的公钥对其进行加密并不会限制收件人对作品的使用。同样,将接收方限制在特定的用户组内(例如,输入站点时需要用户名和密码)并不会限制接收方对内容的进一步使用。在这些示例中,这些内容并不妨碍接收者行使许可授予的所有权利,包括进一步重新分发许可的权利。

If someone is applying effective technological measures to your CC-licensed material that do restrict exercise of the licensed rights (such as applying DRM that restricts copying), this is a violation of the license terms unless you have chosen to grant this permission separately.

When I release my work under a CC license in one format (e.g., .pdf), can I restrict licensees from changing it to or using it in other formats?


What if I change my mind about using a CC license?

CC licenses are not revocable. Once something has been published under a CC license, licensees may continue using it according to the license terms for the duration of applicable copyright and similar rights. As a licensor, you may stop distributing under the CC license at any time, but anyone who has access to a copy of the material may continue to redistribute it under the CC license terms. While you cannot revoke the license, CC licenses do provide amechanismfor licensors to ask that others using their material remove the attribution information. You shouldthink carefully before choosing a Creative Commons license

For Licensees

Before using CC-licensed material

What should I think about before using material offered under a Creative Commons license?

CC offerssix core licenses,每个属性授予一组不同的权限。Before you use CC-licensed material,you should review the terms of the particular licenseto be sure your anticipated use is permitted. If you wish to use the work in a manner that is not permitted by the license, you should contact the rights holder (often the creator) to get permission first, or look for an alternative work that is licensed in a way that permits your anticipated use. Note that if you use material in a way that is not permitted by the applicable license and your use is not otherwise permitted by an applicable copyright exception or limitation, the license isautomatically terminatedand you may be liable for copyright infringement, even if you are eligible to have your rights reinstated later.

Before using material offered under a Creative Commons license, you should know thatCC licenses only grant permissions needed under copyright and similar rights,并且您可能需要额外的权利来按预期使用它。您还应该了解,除非另有明确说明,许可方不会对其许可的材料提供保证或保证。所有材料均“按现状”授权,除非另有明确规定,否则免责声明适用。如果你想要求关于使用材料的权利的保证或保证,你应该在使用它之前和许可方谈谈。

Does a Creative Commons license give me all the rights I need to use the work?

视情况而定。CC licenses do not license rights other than copyright andsimilar rights(which includesui generis database rightsin version 4.0). For example, they do not license trademark or patent rights, or thepublicity, personality, and privacy rights的第三方。However, licensors agree to waive or not assert anymoral rights, publicity rights, personality rights, or privacy rights they themselves hold, to the limited extent necessary to allow exercise of the licensed rights. Any rights outside of the scope of the license may require clearance (i.e., permission) in order to use the work as you would like.


所有CC许可均包含担保免责声明,这意味着许可方不担保作品的任何内容,包括她是否拥有版权,是否已获得在其作品中包括第三方内容的许可,或通过使用一个人的形象在作品中使用模型发布等其他权利。Youmay wish to obtain legal advicebefore using CC-licensed material if you are not sure whether you have all the rights you need.

What if there are sui generis database rights that apply to my use of a CC-licensed database?

In the somewhat limited circumstances where sui generis database rights apply to your use, special conditions apply and there are more specific considerations you should be aware of. Under 4.0, sui generis database rights are licensed alongside copyright, but the treatment in earlier versions of the license varies. A fuller explanation of these variations and related considerations is available in theData FAQ

Where can I find material offered under a CC license?

If you are looking for material offered under a Creative Commons license,CC Searchis a good starting point. There is also adirectoryof organizations and individuals who use CC licenses. Some media sites, such asFlickr, have search filters for material licensed using CC’s licenses.


Are Creative Commons works really free to use?


(If you wish to make uses that are not permitted by the license—for example, making acommercial use许可方可对这些额外权利收取费用。)

What should I know about differences between the international licenses and the ported licenses?

As a licensee, you should always read and understand the relevant license’s legal code before using CC-licensed material, particularly if you are using material that is licensed using aported license这是你不熟悉的。我们的移植过程涉及到调整国际许可以适应不同司法管辖区的法律框架,在这个过程中可能会做一些轻微的调整,您应该在使用材料之前意识到这一点。You can find more information about the ported licenses in theJurisdiction Database

目前还没有4.0的移植版本,我们希望将来也会有。All official translations of the 4.0 international licenses are equivalent: you may substitute one for another depending on your preferred language.


General license compliance

What happens if I want to use the material in a way that is not permitted by the license?

联系版权所有者请求许可。Otherwise,unless an exception or limitation to copyright applies,您对材料的使用可能违反知识共享许可协议。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析If you violate the terms of the license, your rights to use the material will beautomatically terminated, and you may be liable for copyright infringement.

Do I always have to comply with the license terms? If not, what are the exceptions?

You need to comply with the license terms if what you are doing would otherwise require permission from the rights holder. If your use would not require permission from the rights holder because it falls under an exception or limitation, such as fair use, or because the material has come into the public domain, the license does not apply, and you do not need to comply with its terms and conditions. Additionally, if you are using an excerpt small enough to be uncopyrightable, the license does not apply to your use, and you do not need to comply with its terms.

However, if you are using excerpts of CC-licensed material which individually are minimal and do not require license compliance, but together make up a significant copyrightable chunk, you must comply with the license terms. For example, if you quote many individual lines from a poem across several sections of a blog post, and your use is not a fair use, you must comply with the license even though no individual line would have been a substantial enough portion of the work to require this.



All CC licenses require users to attribute the creator of licensed material, unless the creator haswaived that requirement, not supplied a name, orasked that her name be removed.此外,您必须保留一个版权通知、一个到许可(或契约)的链接、一个许可通知、一个关于免责保证的通知,以及一个合理的URI。对于4.0之前的版本,您还必须提供作品的标题。(Though it is not a requirement in 4.0, it is still recommended if one is supplied.)

You must also indicate if you havemodified the work—for example, if you have taken an excerpt, or cropped a photo. (For versions prior to 4.0, this is only required if you have created an adaptation by contributing your own creative material, but it is recommended even when not required.) It is not necessary to note trivial alterations, such as correcting a typo or changing a font size. Finally, you must retain an indication of previous modifications to the work.

CC licenses have a flexible attribution requirement, so there is not necessarily one correct way to provide attribution. The proper method for giving credit will depend on the medium and means you are using, and may be implemented in any reasonable manner. Additionally, you may satisfy the attribution requirement by providing a link to a place where the attribution information may be found.

While the attribution requirements in the license are the minimum requirement, we always recommend that youfollow the best practicesfor the kind of use you are making. For example, if you are using scientific data marked with CC0, you are not required to give attribution at all, but we recommend that you give the same credit you would give to any other source—not because the license requires it, but because that is the standard for letting others know the source of the data.

的CC website offers somebest practicesto help you attribute properly, and theCC Australiateam has developed ahelpful guide to attributing CC-licensed material (.pdf)在不同的格式。注意,归属和标记要求在不同的许可证版本之间略有不同。Seehere for a chart comparing the specific requirements


是的。您需要注意,在未经许可的情况下,不要暗示任何赞助、背书或与许可方或署名方的联系。错误地暗示创作者、出版商或任何人认可你或你对作品的使用可能是非法的。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享协议在其许可中明确规定了不暗示认可的义务。In addition, if the licensor of a workrequests that you remove the identifying credit你必须在实际的范围内这样做。

Additionally, when you are using a work that is an adaptation of one or more pre-existing works, you may need togive credit to the creator(s) of the pre-existing work(s), in addition to giving credit to the creator of the adaptation.


当您通过受版权或类似权利限制的任何方式向公众提供材料时,您必须注明创造者。如果您个人使用该材料,但没有将其或其任何修改提供给他人,您不必归因于许可方。同样,如果您只是在您的公司或组织内分发材料或其改编,您不必遵守属性要求。Learnmoreabout when compliance with the license is not required.

Using licensed material


CC’s NonCommercial (NC) licenses prohibit uses that are “primarily intended for or directed toward commercial advantage or monetary compensation.” This is intended to capture the intention of the NC-using community without placing detailed restrictions that are either too broad or too narrow. Please note that CC’s definition does not turn on the type of user: if you are a nonprofit or charitable organization, your use of an NC-licensed work could still run afoul of the NC restriction, and if you are a for-profit entity, your use of an NC-licensed work does not necessarily mean you have violated the term. Whether a use is commercial will depend on the specifics of the situation and the intentions of the user.

In CC’s experience, it is usually relatively easy to determine whether a use is permitted, and known conflicts are relatively few considering the popularity of the NC licenses. However, there will always be uses that are challenging to categorize as commercial or noncommercial. CC cannot advise you on what is and is not commercial use. If you are unsure, you should either contact the rights holder for clarification, or search for works that permit commercial uses.

CC has abrief guideto interpretation of the NC license that goes into more detail about the meaning of the NC license and some key points to pay attention to. Additionally, in 2008,Creative Commons published resultsfrom a survey on meanings of commercial and noncommercial use generally. Note that the results of the study are not intended to serve as CC’s official interpretation of what is and is not commercial use under our licenses, and the results should not be relied upon as such.



This means, for example, that even if a creator distributes a work in digital format, you have permission to print and share a hard copy of the same work.



Under U.S. copyright law, for example, mechanical reproduction of a work into a different formatis unlikely to create a separate, new work.Consequently, digitally enhancing or changing the format of a workabsent some originality, such as expressive choices made in the enhancement or encoding, will not likely create a separate work for copyright purposes. The creative bar is low, but it is not non-existent. Accordingly, in some jurisdictions releasing a photograph under a CC license will give the public permission to reuse the photograph in a different resolution.


noderived许可证(BY-ND和BY-NC-ND)禁止重用者创建适配。What constitutes anadaptation, otherwise known as a derivative work, varies slightly based on the law of the relevant jurisdiction.


的re are exceptions to that general rule, however, when the excerpts are combined with other material in a way that creates some new version of the original from which the excerpt is taken. For example, if a portion of a song was used as part of a new song, that may rise to the level of creating an adaptation of the original song, even though only a portion of it was used and even if that portion was used as-is.

Can I use effective technological measures (such as DRM) when I share CC-licensed material?


A technological measure is considered an ETM if circumventing it carries penalties under laws fulfilling obligations under Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty adopted on December 20, 1996, or similar international agreements. Generally, this means that the anti-circumvention laws of various jurisdictions would cover attempts to break it.


Note that merely converting material into a different format that is difficult to access or is only available for certain platforms does not violate the restriction; you may do this without violating the license terms.


是的。这并不被认为是一种被禁止的措施,只要该保护仅仅是限制谁可以访问内容,而不限制授权的接受者行使许可的权利。For example, you may post material under any CC license on a site restricted to members of a certain school, or to paying customers, butyou may not place effective technological measures (including DRM) on the filesthat prevents them from sharing the material elsewhere.

(Note that charging for access may not be permitted with NC-licensed material; however, it is not disallowed by the restriction on ETMs.)

Can I share CC-licensed material on file-sharing networks?





Additional restrictions on licensed material

What if I received CC-licensed material encumbered with effective technological measures (such as DRM)?


Note that anti-circumvention laws can impose criminal liability in some jurisdictions.

What if I have received CC-licensed material with additional restrictions?

It is possible that CC-licensed material will appear on platforms that impose terms in addition to the copyright license (thoughCreative Commons strongly discourages restrictions that interfere with exercise of the licensed rights). These additional terms do not form part of the license for the work. For example, if you download CC-licensed material from a site that does not permit downloading, you may be breaking the terms of use of the site, but you are not infringing the CC license. See our guide toModifying the CC licensesfor more guidance and information.

Combining and adapting CC material

When is my use considered an adaptation?

Whether a modification of licensed material is considered anadaptationCC许可的目的主要取决于适用的版权法。根据版权法,原作者有权对原作品进行改编。允许改编作品被共享的CC许可——除BY-ND和by - nc - nd外——授予他人创建和重新发布改编作品的许可,否则将构成对适用版权法的违反。一般来说,当修改的作品是基于先前的作品,但表现出足够的新创造力而可获得版权时,修改就会上升到版权法规定的改编级别,例如将小说从一种语言翻译成另一种语言,或根据小说创作剧本。

Under CC licenses, synching music in timed relation with a moving image is always considered an adaptation, whether or not it would be considered so under applicable law. Also, under version 4.0, certain uses of databases restricted by sui generis database rights also constitute adaptations (called “Adapted Material” in the 4.0 licenses), whether or not they would be considered adaptations under copyright law. For more details about adaptations in the database context, see theData FAQ

Note that all CC licenses allow the user to exercise the rights permitted under the licensein any format or medium.这些变化不被认为是适应,即使适用的法律会有相反的建议。For example, you may redistribute a book that uses the CCBY-NC-NDlicense in print form when it was originally distributed online, even if you have had to make formatting changes to do so, as long as you do so in compliance with the other terms of the license.

Note on terminology: throughout these FAQs, we use the term “remix” interchangeably with “adapt.” Both are designed to mean doing something that constitutes anadaptation under copyright law

Can I combine material under different Creative Commons licenses in my work?

视情况而定。的first question to ask is whether doing so constitutes anadaptation.If the combination doesnotcreate an adaptation, then you may combine any CC-licensed content so long as you provide attribution and comply with the NonCommercial restriction if it applies. If you want to combine material in a way that results in the creation of an adaptation (i.e. a “remix”), then you must pay attention to the particular license that applies to the content you want to combine.

除私人使用外,NoDerivatives许可证不允许重新混音(4.0之前的许可证根本不允许重新混音,除非有版权的例外和限制)。所有其他CC许可都允许混音,但可能会对混音的使用方式施加限制或条件。例如,如果您使用ShareAlike许可下授权的材料创建一个混音作品,您需要确保所有参与混音作品的材料都是在相同的许可或许可下授权的one that CC has named as compatible, and you mustproperly credit all of the sourceswith therequired attributionand license information. Similarly, if you want to use a remix forcommercial purposes,您不能合并在非商业许可下发布的材料。

下面的图表显示了哪些cc许可的材料可以被重新混合。要使用此图表,请在左侧列和右上角行中找到许可证。如果在行和列相交的方框中有一个复选标记,那么作品可以重新混合。如果盒子里有一个“X”,那么作品不能被重新混合,除非有例外或限制适用。Seebelow for details on how remixes may be licensed


If you makeadaptations在CC许可下的材料(即“混音”),原始CC许可总是适用于你正在改编的材料,即使是曾经改编过的。您可以为自己的贡献选择的许可(称为“适配器许可”)取决于适用于原始材料的许可。Recipients of the adaptation must comply with both the CC license on the original and your adapter’s license.

  • BY and BY-NC material

When remixing BY or BY-NC material, it is generally recommended that your adapter’s license include at least the same license elements as the license applied to the original material. This eases reuse for downstream users because they are able to satisfy both licenses by complying with the adapter’s license. For example, if you adapt material licensed under BY-NC, your adapter’s license should also contain the NC restriction. See the chart below for more details.

  • BY-SA and BY-NC-SA material

通常,当重新混合ShareAlike内容时,适配器的许可必须与正在改编的材料上的许可相同。1.0版本之后的所有许可都允许您在同一许可的更高版本下许可您的贡献,有些还允许移植许可。(See thelicense versions page详情)。If you wish to adapt material under BY-SA or BY-NC-SA and release your contributions under a non-CC license, you should visit theCompatibility pageto see which options are allowed.

  • BY-ND and BY-NC-ND material

的BY-ND and BY-NC-ND licenses do not permit distribution of adaptations (also known as remixes or derivative works), and prohibits the creation of adaptations under the pre-4.0 versions of those licenses. Since you may not share remixes of these materials at all, there is no compatibility with other licenses. (Note that the ND licenses do allow you to reproduce the material in unmodified form together with other material in a collection, as indicated in the next FAQ.)

  • Adapter’s license chart

的chart below details the CC license(s) you may use as your adapter’s license. When creating an adaptation of material under the license identified in the lefthand column, you may license your contributions to the adaptation under one of the licenses indicated on the top row if the corresponding box is green. CC does not recommend using a license if the corresponding box is yellow, although doing so is technically permitted by the terms of the license. If you do, you should take additional care to mark the adaptation as involving multiple copyrights under different terms so that downstream users are aware of their obligations to comply with the licenses from all rights holders. Dark gray boxes indicate those licenses that you may not use as your adapter’s license.

Adapter’s license chart Adapter’s license
Status of original work PD
Abbreviation Key

If I create a collection that includes a work offered under a CC license, which license(s) may I choose for the collection?

All Creative Commons licenses (including the version 4.0 licenses) allow licensed material to be included in collections such as anthologies, encyclopedias, and broadcasts. You may choose a license for the collection, however this does not change the license applicable to the original material.

When you include CC-licensed content in a collection, you still must adhere to the license conditions governing your use of the material incorporated. For example, material under any of the Creative Commons NonCommercial licenses cannot be usedcommercially.下表说明了您可以将何种cc许可的作品纳入商业和非商业用途许可的集合中。

Original Work Commercial Collection (BY, BY-SA, BY-ND) NonCommercial Collection (BY-NC, BY-NC-SA, BY-NC-ND)

License termination

When do Creative Commons licenses expire?

Creative Commons licenses expire when the underlying copyright and similar rights expire.

Note that the relevant rights may expire at different times. For example, you may have a CC-licensed song where the rights in the musical arrangement expire before the rights in the lyrics. In this case, when the copyright in the music expires, you may use itwithout being required to comply with the conditions of the CC license; however, you must still comply with the license if you use the lyrics.

What happens if the author decides to revoke the CC license to material I am using?

的CC licenses are irrevocable. This means that once you receive material under a CC license, you will always have the right to use it under those license terms, even if the licensor changes his or her mind and stops distributing under the CC license terms. Of course, you may choose to respect the licensor’s wishes and stop using the work.


All of the CC licenses terminate if you fail to follow the license conditions. If this happens, you no longer have a license to use the material.

In the 4.0 licenses, your rights under the license are automatically reinstated if you correct this failure within 30 days of discovering the violation (either on your own or because the licensor or someone else has told you). Under the 3.0 and earlier licenses, there is no automatic reinstatement.


Note that you may still be liable for damages for copyright infringement for the period where you were not in compliance with the license.



的Creative Commons licenses havethree layers, as does theCC0 public domain dedication: the human-readable deed, the lawyer-readable legal code, and the machine-readable metadata. ThePublic Domain Markis not legally operative, and so has only two layers: the human-readable mark and machine-readable metadata.

When material is licensed using any of the CC licenses or tools, it is highly recommended that aCC button, text, or other marker somehow accompany it. There are many possible modes for marking. For our licenses, people generally use theCC license chooserto generate HTML code that can be pasted into the webpage where the licensed material is published. CC0 and the Public Domain Mark have a separatechooser.Many platforms and web services such asFlickrandDrupalsupport CC licensing directly, allowing you to select an appropriate license. The service then properly marks the work for you.

CC has published some best practices formarkingyour CC-licensed material, and recommends:

  • Including a visual indicator (some combination of text and images) that the work is licensed with one of the CC licenses.
  • Clearly indicating what material is covered under the CC license, especially if it’s presented alongside non-licensed materials.
  • Including a link to the human-readable deed (which itself contains a link to the legal code).
  • Embeddingmachine-readablelicense指标代码或license页面代码中的元数据。

See themarking网页了解更多详情。


Creative Commons hasspecified CC RELas a way to associate machine-readable licensing metadata with objects offered under CC licenses.

Before Creative Commons developed this vocabulary, it was difficult for a machine to ascertain whether an object was marked with a CC license. There was also no standard, predictable place to house metadata about that license (for example, the source URL of the work or the required mode of attribution).

基于普遍接受的元数据标准的机器可读元数据创建了一个平台,可以在其上构建新的服务和应用程序。软件和服务可以检测CC许可以及该许可的详细信息,如元数据所描述的那样。例如,在许多网站和搜索引擎(如谷歌和Flickr)上,您可以对特定CC许可下提供的作品进行过滤搜索。此外,CC许可契约可以自动创建复制粘贴属性代码,因此用户可以轻松地遵守许可的BY条件。When you click on a CC license orbuttonfrom a page with license metadata, you get copy-and-paste attribution HTML within that license deed page. That HTML is based on available RDFa metadata in the original material.

All HTML provided by theCC license chooseris automatically annotated withmetadatainRDFaformat.

What is RDFa?

RDFa是一种在网页中嵌入结构化数据的方法。For more information about RDFa, see the following resources:

CC REL是什么?为什么知识共享会推荐它?卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析

Creative Commons Rights Expression Language(CC REL)通过定义语义网的标准呈现有关许可证和机器可读的工作的信息。卡塔尔vs葡萄牙分析知识共享协议希望让创作者和科学家在选择他人作品的基础上更容易地进行创作;许可您的作品重用和找到适当的许可作品重用应该很容易。CC recommends that you mark your licensed works with CC REL. The Creative Commons license chooser provides HTML annotated with CC REL, while the Creative Commons deeds recognize CC REL on web pages with works offered under a CC license, and use this metadata to enhance the deed for properly marked-up works, e.g., by providing copy and paste HTML that includes work attribution.

For more background information on CC REL, please refer to thispaper

What does it mean for a search engine to be CC-enabled?

Some search engines (likeGoogle) allow people to filter their search results by usage rights so that you can limit your search results according to the particular CC license you seek. For example, if you are looking for a photo to adapt, you can filter your search to return photos that have a CC license that permits creation of adaptations. You can generally find this search feature on the advanced search page of your selected search engine. You can also useCC Search, which offers a convenient interface to search and a list of those content providers that support searches for content based on usage rights.


How do I give users of my site the option to use CC licensing like Flickr does?

Creative Commons provides tools for integrating license selection with your site. You can find an overview at the Web Integration article on theCC wiki.的Partner Interface是一个很好的开始方式,并且总是会有最新的许可版本和翻译。However, there is also anAPI如果你想要更多的控制,就可以使用。

How can I change or remove the Creative Commons search option built into the Firefox browser?

Mozilla has included the Creative Commons search function in many versions of Firefox along with search options for Google, Amazon, and other popular sites. Please take a look at theFirefox article on the CC wikifor an explanation of how to change these features.

If you want to add or remove a particular search option, click on the logo in the search box (for example, the CC logo or the Google logo). This will open the pull down menu, which will allow you to select different search providers. If you choose “Manage Search Engines,” you will be able to add or remove search engines. You can also alter the order in which the search providers appear on the pull down menu.

Is Creative Commons involved in digital rights management (DRM)?


CC licenses contain language prohibiting licensees from the use of effective technological measures (including DRM) to prevent access to licensed material: ”You may not offer or impose any additional or different terms or conditions on, or apply any Effective Technological Measures to, the Licensed Material if doing so restricts exercise of the Licensed Rights by any such recipient.”

While licensors may apply effective technological measures (ETMs) to their own materials, the licensor provides alimited permission to circumvent these measures: “The Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any right or authority to forbid You from making technical modifications necessary to exercise the Licensed Rights, including technical modifications necessary to circumvent Effective Technological Measures.” Note that this only applies to effective technological measures applied by licensors themselves: third parties such as distribution platforms may still apply ETMs if the licensor uploads there, and the license is not able to grant you permission to circumvent it.

版权法赋予原创作品的创作者专有权。国家法律通常会将保护范围扩大到一旦固定在有形媒介上的此类作品,禁止在未经版权所有者许可的情况下复制。在互联网上,即使是最基本的活动也包括复制受版权保护的内容。随着越来越多的内容在网上上传、下载和共享,版权法比20年前更与更多的人相关。不幸的是,侵犯版权——即使是无意或不知情的——都可能导致责任。Successful navigation of the internet requires some understanding of copyright law.

What is the public domain?

著作权公共领域是指在一定司法管辖范围内不受著作权限制的作品的总和。A work may be part of the public domain because the applicable term of copyright has expired, because the rights holder surrendered copyright in the work with a tool likeCC0, or because the work did not meet the applicable standards for copyrightability.

Because the public domain depends on the copyright laws in force within a particular territory, sometimes a work may be considered “in the public domain” of one jurisdiction, but not in another. For example,U.S. government works are automatically in the public domain under U.S. copyright law, but might be restricted by copyright in other countries.

Public Domain Manifesto, theUniversity Librariespage, and theCC0 FAQs所有这些都包含公共领域的额外信息。

Copyright in most jurisdictions attaches automatically without need for any formality once a creative work is fixed in tangible form (i.e. the minute you put pen to paper, take a photo, or hit the “save” button on your computer).

In some jurisdictions, creators may be required to register with a national agency in order to enforce copyright in court. If you would like more information, please consult theBerne Conventionoryour jurisdiction’s copyright law



An adaptation is a work based on one or more pre-existing works. What constitutes an adaptation depends on applicable law, however translating a work from one language to another or creating a film version of a novel are generally considered adaptations.

In order for an adaptation to be protected by copyright, most national laws require the creator of the adaptation to add original expression to the pre-existing work. However, there is no international standard for originality, and the definition differs depending on the jurisdiction. Civil law jurisdictions (such asGermanyandFrance) tend to require that the work contain an imprint of the adapter’s personality. Common law jurisdictions (such as theU.S.orCanada), on the other hand, tend to have a lower threshold for originality, requiring only a minimal level of creativity and “independent conception.” Some countries approach originality completely differently. For example,Brazil’scopyright code protects all works of the mind that do not fall within the list of works that are expressly defined in the statue as “unprotected works.” Consultyour jurisdiction’s copyright law为更多的信息。


Copyright laws in many jurisdictions around the world grant creators “moral rights” in addition to the economic or commercial right to exploit their creative works. Moral rights protect the personal and reputational value of a work for its creator. Moral rights differ by country, and can include the right of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or pseudonymously, and/or the right to the integrity of the work. The moral right of integrity may provide creators with a source for redress if an adaptation represents derogatory treatment of their work, typically defined as “distortion or mutilation” of the work or treatment that is “prejudicial to the honor, or reputation of the author.” Not all jurisdictions provide for moral rights.

的CC licenses are intended to minimize the effect of moral rights on a licensee’s ability to use licensed material; however, in some jurisdictions, these rights may still have an effect. CC offers some additional information onhow CC licenses may affect your moral rights


版权通过向创作者提供独家权利来激励创作。然而,作品的传播或利用通常不仅仅涉及创作者。例如,如果有人写了一首歌,其他人可能会表演这首歌,而另一个人可能会制作这首歌的录音。一些司法管辖区将版权扩展到这些人所作的贡献;其他司法管辖区以邻接权的形式扩大这种专有权。邻接权可以包括表演者权利或广播者权利等。的Rome Conventionsets forth some guidelines on the scope of neighboring rights. Not all jurisdictions recognize neighboring rights.

What are sui generis database rights?



Collecting societiesare copyright management organizations. Some examples of collecting societies include ASCAP and BMI (United States), BUMA/STEMRA (Netherlands), PRS (United Kingdom), and APRA (Australia). These societies license works on behalf of their owners and process royalty payments from parties using the copyrighted works.

CC offers additional information onhow collecting societies might affect your rights and your ability to apply CC licenses to your work.CC has severalpilotsunderway with collecting societies that have chosen to allow their members to use CC licenses on a limited basis.

What are publicity, personality, and privacy rights?

的se terms are used differently in different jurisdictions. Generally speaking, these rights allow individuals to control the use of their voice, image, likeness, or other identifiable aspect of their identity, especially for purposes of commercial exploitation. Similarly, in some jurisdictions these rights allow people to restrict others’ ability to publish information about them without their permission. Whether and to what extent these rights exist, and if so, how they are labeled, varies depending on the jurisdiction.

Creative Commons licenses have a limited effect on these rightswhere the licensor holds them. Where the licensor has publicity, personality, or privacy rights that may affect your ability to use the material as the license intends, the licensor agrees to waive or not assert those rights. However, any such rights not held by the licensor are not affected and may still affect your desired use of a licensed work. If you have created a work or wish to use a work that might in some way implicate these rights, you may need to obtain permission from the individuals whose rights may be affected.


This page supersedesDatabases and Creative Commons

Much of the potential value of data is to society at large — more data has the potential to facilitate enhanced scientific collaboration and reproducibility, more efficient markets, increased government and corporate transparency, and overall to speed discovery and understanding of solutions to planetary and societal needs.

A big part of the potential value of data, in particular its society-wide value, is realized by use across organizational boundaries. How does this occur legally? Many sites give narrow permission to use data via terms of service. Much ad hoc data sharing also occurs among researchers. And increasingly, sharing of data is facilitated by distribution under standard, public legal tools used to manage copyright and similar restrictions that might otherwise limit dissemination or reuse of data, e.g.CC licensesor theCC0公共领域奉献。

Many organizations, institutions, and governments are using CC tools for data. For case studies about how these tools are applied, see:

:Uses of CC Licenses with Data and Databases:Uses of CC0 with Data and Databases

Frequently asked questions about data and CC licenses


Yes,CC licenses can be used to license databases.最新的版本(4.0)可能被用于授权数据库受版权和,在适用的情况下,自成体系的数据库权利。Sui generis database rights prevent copying and reusing ofsubstantial parts数据库(包括经常提取的不重要的部分)。然而,与版权不同的是,数据库版权保护的是创作者的投资,而不是独创性。

CC does not recommend use of its NonCommercial (NC) or NoDerivatives (ND) licenses on databases intended for scholarly or scientific use.

除了我们的执照,我们CC0 Public Domain Dedication可以在数据库上使用,以最大限度地重用数据库。一旦应用,其效果是放弃数据库及其内容的所有版权和相关权利,使其尽可能接近世界范围的公共领域。在某些领域,如科学和政府,有一些重要的理由考虑使用CC0。放弃版权和相关权利消除了潜在用户的所有不确定性,鼓励最大限度地重用和共享信息。

When a CC license is applied to a database, what is being licensed?

的license terms and conditions apply to the database structure (its selection and arrangement,to the extent copyrightable), its contents (if copyrightable), and in those instances where the database maker hassui generis database rightsthen the rights that are granted those makers. Notwithstanding, licensors can choose to license some rather than all of the rights they have in a database. Creative Commons advises against this practice. However, if a licensor chooses to do so anyway, we strongly encourage licensors to clearly demarcate what is and is not licensed. Seebelowfor more information regarding how to provide clear notice of what is licensed.

Before making a database available under a CC license, a database provider should first make sure she has all rights necessary to do so. Often, the database provider is not the original author of the database contents. If that is the case, the database provider should secure separate permission from the other author(s) before publishing the database under a CC legal tool. If a database maker decides to license the database without securing permission from the author(s) of the database contents, it should clearly indicate the material for which permission has not been secured and clearly mark the material as not being offered under the terms of the license. For more information, read ourpre-licensingguidelines.

Database providers should also consider carefully what elements of the database she wants covered by the CC legal tool and identify those elements in a manner that reusers will see and understand. Please see our [marking page]https://wiki.www.familygiver.com/wiki/Marking_your_work_with_a_CC_license “wikilink”) for more information on how to clearly distinguish unlicensed content.


Under version 4.0, if an NC license has been applied then any use of the licensed database or its contentsthat is restricted by copyright laworsui generis database rightsrequires compliance with theNC term, even if the database is not publicly shared. The other license elements (BY, ND, and SA, as applicable) must be complied with only if your use is so restricted and public sharing is involved. Learn more about how to comply whenyour use implicates copyrightand/orsui generis database rights

Prior CC license versions do not require compliance with the license restrictions or conditions when only sui generis database rights (and not copyright) are implicated. Please see below for more detail abouthow this works in the currentandprior versionsof the licenses.



If and only if your particular use is one that would require permission, you should note the following:

  • Permission:4.0的所有6个许可都允许文本和数据挖掘,通过给予私人复制、提取和重用许可数据库的内容以及创建适应的数据库的明确许可。
  • Commercial purposes:If you are conducting text and data mining forcommercial purposes, you should not mine NC-licensed databases or other material.
  • Outputs:If you publicly share the results of your mining activity or the data you mined, you should attribute the rights holder. If what you publicly share qualifies as an adaptation of the licensed material, you should not mine ND-licensed material. If you share an adaptation of material under an SA license, you must apply the same license to the adaptation that results.

If your use is not one that requires permission under the license,您可以进行文本和数据挖掘活动,而不考虑上述考虑。

How does the treatment of sui generis database rights vary in prior versions of CC licenses?

As explainedabove, the current version of the CC license suite (4.0) licenses sui generis database rights in addition to copyright and other closely related rights. Past versions of CC licenses operate differently with respect to sui generis database rights.

In the CC version 3.0 licenses, the legal treatment of sui generis database rights varies, but the practical result is always the same: compliance with the license restrictions and conditions is not required where sui generis database rights–but not copyright–are implicated. This means that if someone extracts a substantial portion of a CC-licensed database and uses it in a way that does not implicate copyright (e.g., by rearranging purely factual data), the license does not require her to attribute the licensor or comply with any other restrictions or conditions, even if the database is protected by sui generis database rights.


By contrast, the 3.0 unported licenses and all other ported licenses do not expressly license sui generis database rights. As a result, those licenses do not apply when sui generis database rights alone are implicated. This means a licensee may need separate permission to use the database in a way that implicates sui generis database rights (although arguably an implied license to exercise those rights may be deemed granted in some jurisdictions).

More information on the underlying 3.0 policy decision the treatment of sui generis database rights those licenses can be foundon our wiki (.pdf)

What is the difference between the Open Data Commons licenses and the CC 4.0 licenses?

Open Database License (ODbL)and theOpen Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-BY)are licenses designed specifically for use on databases and not on other types of material. There are many differences between those licenses and CC licenses, but the most important to be aware of relate to license scope and operation. The ODC licenses apply only to sui generis database rights and any copyright in the database structure, they do not apply to the individual contents of the database. The latest version of the CC licenses on the other hand apply to sui generis database rights and all copyright and neighboring rights in the database structure as well as the contents. (Seeabove有关CC许可的过去版本在不同数据库权限方面的差异的更多细节。)

Another important difference is that ODC licenses may create contractual obligations even in jurisdictions where database rights would not otherwise exist and but for the license permission would not be necessary. CC has crafted its licenses to ensure that theynever impose obligations where permission is not otherwise requiredto use the licensed material.

Frequently asked questions about data, generally


database model指数据库的结构和组织方式,包括数据库表和表索引。如果数据库足够新颖,数据库的选择、协调和安排都受到版权的约束。在许多司法管辖区,原创门槛相当低。例如,虽然美国法院认为按字母顺序排列的电话簿不够新颖,不值得受到版权保护,但有组织的某一特定领域的美籍华人企业电话簿却值得受到版权保护。1这些决定是非常具体的事实(没有双关语的意思)和不同的管辖权。

data entry and output sheetscontain questions, and the answers to these questions are stored in a database. For example, a web page asking a scientist to enter a gene’s name, its pathway information, and its ontology would constitute a data entry sheet. The format and layout of these sheets are protected by copyright according to the same standard of originality used to determine if the database model is copyrightable.

Field namesdescribe the contents or data. For example, “address” might be the name of the field for street address information. These are less likely to be protected by copyright because they often lack sufficient originality.



类似地,即使数据库内容受版权约束,并在CC许可下发布,使用嵌入在内容中的事实和思想也不需要归属(或遵守其他适用的许可条件),除非这样做会像上面解释的那样在数据库结构中涉及版权。Thisimportant limitation of all CC licenses在通知部分的许可契约中强调,我们强调公共领域中的材料元素不需要遵守许可。

All CC licenses require that you attribute the licensor when your use involves public sharing. Your other obligations depend on the particular CC license applied to the database. If it is a NC license, any regulated use must be limited tononcommercial purposesonly. If a ND is applied, you may produce an adapted database but cannot share it publicly. If it is a ShareAlike (SA) license, you must apply the same or acompatible licenseto any adaptation of the database you share publicly.

Which components of a database are protected by sui generis database rights?

与版权不同的是,自成体系的数据库权利旨在保护制作者对数据库的大量投资。In particular, the right prevents the unauthorized extraction and reuse of asubstantial portionof the contents.

How do I know whether a particular use of a database is restricted by sui generis database rights?

When a database is subject to sui generis database rights, extracting and reusing asubstantial portionof the database contents is prohibited absent some express exception.

It is important to remember that sui generis database rights exist in only a few countries outside theEuropean Union, such as Korea and Mexico. Generally, if you are using a CC-licensed database in a location where those rights do not exist, you do not have to comply with license restrictions or conditions unless copyright (or some other licensed right) is implicated.


What constitutes a “substantial portion” of a database?

的re is no bright line test for what constitutes a “substantial portion”. The answer will depend on the law in the relevant jurisdiction. Note that what constitutes a substantial portion is determined both quantitatively and qualitatively. Also, using several insubstantial portions can add up to a substantial portion.


If the database is released under the current version (4.0) of CC licenses, you must attribute the licensor if you share asubstantial portionof the database contents. The other requirements depend on the particular license applied to the database. Under the NC licenses, you may not extract and reuse a substantial portion of the database contents forcommercial purposes.ND许可禁止您将数据库的大部分内容包含在您拥有自己的数据库权限的另一个公共共享数据库中。And finally, the SA licenses require you to apply the same or acompatible license对于您公开共享并且包含大量授权数据库内容的任何数据库。Note that this doesnot要求您共享您在数据库单个内容中拥有的任何版权或其他权利。

Artificial intelligence and CC licenses


许可证授予在任何需要在版权下获得许可的情况下重用的许可。cc授权的作品甚至所有保留权利的作品都可以在没有许可的情况下被重用,这种方式有很多。This includesuses that are fair uses为例。


But what about privacy laws, rules governing ethical research, and data protection laws?

CC’s copyright licenses are not universal policy tools. Copyright is the primary obstacle to reuse that our licenses solve, but there are many other issues related to the reuse of content that our licenses do not address and that reusers should be aware of. These can includeprivacy以及管理伦理研究和数据收集或使用的规则,这些必须与CC许可所涵盖的版权问题分开来处理和尊重。

当cc许可的图像包含在已发布的数据集中时,存在哪些归因义务?Is linking to the original image or URI required, and if so, is it adequate?


如果cc许可的作品作为数据库或数据集的一部分分发,并且假定触发了版权(或在欧盟,版权或自成一体的数据库权利),那么许可条件必须得到尊重。这意味着以一种合理的方式提供所需的归因信息。我们的许可允许一些灵活性,在某些情况下,可能只需要提供一个链接到提供相关归属信息的网站。Visit ourmarking practicespage for more information.


This depends on whether any of the uses made of the works by the company, whether for profit or non profit, are primarily intended for commercial advantage or monetary compensation. This is hard to know without having all of the facts about how a work was used, whether internally by the company for its own purposes or how the work was distributed for further use. Visit ourNC pagefor more information about what constitutes commercial and non commercial uses of works.

If NC-licensed content is redistributed to the public under an NC license, that distribution would not violate the NC clause. (Note that CC strongly discourages the use of any license terms other than a CC NC license for redistributions of NC-licensed content.)

If CC SA-licensed content is included in a database, does the entire database have to be licensed under an SA license?

CC licenses never require a reuser of a CC-licensed work to make the original work or resulting works (collections, derivatives, etc.) publicly available. There are lots of private reuses of works that are permitted by CC’s licenses that do not require compliance with their terms. Regarding ShareAlike, the condition only applies if a work is modified and if the work is shared publicly. In the situation where a reuser created a dataset of photos and made it publicly available, and assuming copyright permission is required, then what is released is likely a collection or compilation of pre-existing works. CC licenses do not require the collection or the compilation itself to be made available under an SA license, even though each individual work is still licensed individually under an SA license and if they were modified by the distributor the modified photo would need to be licensed under the same terms. For example, were Creative Commons to compile photographs from a photo sharing website under a BY-SA 2.0 license and create a database that it then publicly distributed, CC could license the collection as a whole under a BY license, but the photographs would continue to be licensed under BY-SA 2.0.

What, if any, remedies, do users have if they dislike how their photos or images have been reused?

Several remedies are potentially available. Some may be available if the CC license terms have been violated, and others may be available through other, separate avenues because they involve other laws or regulations that the CC licenses do not cover. It’s important to remember, however, that absent a violation of the license the permissions granted under thelicense remain in place and cannot be revoked

  • 在CC许可下,即使没有违反许可条件,许可方也可以要求删除对他们的属性,这样他们就可以与重用保持距离。
  • For violations of a CC license term where the license was required (not a fair use, etc.) then you may have a claim for copyright infringement. Fortunately, in the CC community most license violations are handled amicably without resorting to the courts.
  • 对于涉及除版权以外的法律法规的索赔,可根据您当地的法律进行追索。

对于任何可能在CC许可下分享内容的人来说,一个重要的出发点是事先了解它们是如何工作的,以及它们有哪些权利,没有哪些权利。We have manyFAQs在我们的网站上。We also providehuman-readable deedswith links to thefull text of our licenses.Additionally, all of our licenses highlight at the beginning manyconsiderations that licensorsshould have in mind before they license, and considerations forreusers of worksbefore they do so in order to avoid inadvertent violations.


  1. Key Publications, Inc.诉Chinatown Today Publishing Enterprises Inc., 945 F.2d 509 (2d Cir. 1991)。↩︎